Beth Sapra
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Copyright & License:

© 2005 John Marucci,
all rights reserved.

Unless specifically stated otherwise, all material on this website, including but not limited to text, graphics, and programing code, is the proprietary intellectual property of the author.

In general, you may download this material to a single personal computer for private individual use only. You may not sell, transfer, exhibit, extract, modify, or reverse engineer any part of this intellectual property without the prior written consent of the author.

I wish to thank Paul Younan, the generous sponsor of, for making this website possible.
I also wish to thank my wife, Laurie, for her years of unfailing support, and artistic contributions.

A Scribe's Links
Here is a selection of on-line resources to help you on your journey into the Aramaic language. Please be aware that the websites listed on this page cover the entire spectrum of religious belief and technical expertise. The inclusion of a site is based upon my assessment of the technical usefulness of specific elements within a site, and is not an endorsement of religious belief or overall technical accuracy.

Aramaic Language Resources Available on the Web:

The Peshitta Aramaic/English Interlinear New Testament at This site contains an interlinear Aramaic - English New Testament, an English - Aramaic Lexicon, a forum, and more!

Beth Morounoye at: is a Maronite Catholic website offering lessons in Syriac - Aramaic, plus many other facets of Maronite liturgy and culture. Note that this site requires a Netscape 6.x compatible  browser.

The Assyrian Aramaic Language Web Site at: This site plans on offering a complete introduction to the Aramaic language, including sound files.

Learn Assyrian (Aramaic / Neo-Aramaic) OnLine at: teaches the Aramaic alphabet, modern Eastern and Estrangela, using modern Aramaic vocabulary and sound files.

The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon at: is a project underway to compile a complete comprehensive multi-dialect dictionary of the Aramaic language. This site also offers some tagged source texts. Choose "Search CAL Database" on the main page, then choose "Text Browse," and finally, select the  "Syriac" radio button and submit the form.

The Dolabanis Syriac Web Lexicon at: This lexicon can do English to Syriac word searches, and will be useful to people needing English to Syriac translations.

The Syriac Corner of the Universalist World Online at: offers the complete unvowelled text of the Peshitta New Testament in a variety of different formats, a 19th century English translation of the Peshito by James Murdock, and several other Syriac - Aramaic items.

Beth Mardutho at: is a site run by Dr. George A. Kiraz, a leading Syriac - Aramaic scholar, and has many interesting projects underway.

Father Kamil Ishak's Home Page at: has many audio files of Syriac Orthodox Liturgical music and Syriac - Aramaic lessons, including the   Karabashee Key, a 50 page introduction to Syriac for children of all ages

Syriac Resources at: has a number of books, computer programs, and audio files for the Syriac-Aramaic enthusiast. Note that this website does not work properly with older web browsers.

The Ascetics' Jive Palace at: is a Syriac Orthodox site which has some lessons on the Serto script of the Syriac-Aramaic alphabet, plus articles on Orthodox theology and practice.

The Syrian Orthodox Website and News Group, Mailing List, & WebRing at: has nine introductory Syriac lessons by Father Joseph Tarzi, along with many other items related to Syrian Orthodox Christianity and culture. at: is an organization dedicated to the preservation and promotion of the religious and folk music of the Syriac Orthodox ?Tradition.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at: has an excellent introductory overview of the Aramaic language from a contemporary scholarly perspective. The reviewed version includes some high quality images of Syriac manuscripts, and sound files.

The AI Foundations Syriac page at: has the complete text of the Peshitta New Testament in Unicode format, and links to Syriac-Aramaic dictionaries, grammars, and English New Testament translations.

The P'shitto Autiqa Project of the Wellsprings of Torah website at: is producing a downloadable interlinear version of the Peshito with accompanying glossary and grammar resources in pdf format.

Peshitta Primacy and Priority:

Peshitta Primacists believe that the Peshitta is the original New Testament. Peshitta Prioritists, while not going as far, believe that the Peshitta is still closer to the original New Testament than the received Greek versions. The websites in this section have as their primary aim the proof of these assertions.

The Aramaic Peshitta Bible Repository at: has a free book in pdf format on Peshitta Primacy, a forum, and a growing repository of Peshitta related reference materials.

Aramaic NT Truth at: has selections from the authors printed books on Peshitta Primacy.


Many books relating to Syriac-Aramaic and Eastern Christianity are available from one or more of the major on-line book vendors:, Barnes and Noble, Borders Books, ect. For hard to find books try the following specialty vendors:

Eisenbrauns at: HTTPS:// carries many books on Syriac-Aramaic and the ancient near east, including most of the selections listed in the bibliography on my Library page..

Gorgias Press at: reprints many books on Syriac-Aramaic from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, including some of those listed in the bibliography on my Library page. It also carries a few new books on this subject.

Light and Life Publishing at: carries a huge selection of books on patristics, the early church, and many books of interest on Christian Orthodoxy and Eastern Rite Catholicism.

Aramaic Books at: specializes in the East Syrian and Jewish Traditions, and carries many products of interest.

Some Churches with an Aramaic (Syriac) Connection:

Eparchy of Saint Maron of Brooklyn at: is the official homepage of the Maronite Rite Roman Catholic Archdiocese of the Eastern USA.

Archdiocese of the Syriac Orthodox Church for the Eastern United State at: is the official homepage for the Syriac Orthodox Church in the Eastern United States.

The Assyrian Church of the East at is the official website of the American Patriarchate branch of this church. (Gregorian calendar)

Chaldean Diocese Homepage at: is the official site of the Chaldean Rite Roman Catholic Church in the USA.

Knanaya World at: is a gateway into the world of the Knanaya, an ancient Jewish Christian community which has remained distinct from the other ancient Christian communities of southern India.

Some On-line Journals:

Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies at: is a scholarly online journal for Syriac - Aramaic studies.

Maronite American Research Institute (MARI) at is an online journal about the Maronite Rite Roman Catholic Church. 

Shroro - The Syriac Orthodox Christian Digest at:, is a monthly on-line journal of the Syriac Orthodox Church. 

Patristics, Theology, and Church History Links:

New Advent at: is a large Roman Catholic site offering a complete 1908 version of the Catholic Encyclopedia, plus writings of the church fathers, and much more.

St. Pachomius Library at: offers a large alphabetized selection of links to patristic writings.

Christian Classics Ethereal Library at: offers many public domain books of Christian literature, including many patristic writings.

Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism at: offers a wealth of information on the theories and viewpoints of modern mainstream Biblical scholarship.

The Medieval Source Book at: offers a large selection of links to primary and secondary source documents from the medieval period translated into English.

Resource Pages for Biblical Studies at: has a large selection of links related to early Christianity.

Links to Calligraphy and Illumination:

While the following links have nothing directly to do with Syriac-Aramaic, those who have enjoyed the artistic elements of this website may find them interesting:


The Vellum Gallery at: offers an exhibit of modern calligraphy and illumination, a section demonstrating techniques, and a list of links.

Armsite at: has a nice gallery of Armenian manuscript miniatures.

Another nice gallery of Armenian miniatures can be found at:

The Lindisfarne Gospels. This is one of the best examples of western medieval manuscript production, both in terms of calligraphy, and illumination. There are a number of sites dealing with this manuscript. Here are a few of the better ones:


The Scribal Resource Page at: , a part of the Society for Creative Anachronism, maintains a list of links related to the scribe's art.

The Cyber Scriptorium at: is another Society for Creative Anachronism site for scribes.

The Gutenberg School of Scribes at: has ten well crafted lessons on the art of medieval and Renaissance illumination.

A good tutorial on "Celtic" knotwork can be found at: As the author freely admits, knotwork is actually native to most cultures, including the Middle East.

The Celtic Knot Font available from: was my starting point for the knotwork used on this site.

Aon Celtic Art & Illumination at: is a fine example of the modern scribal arts with an online gift shop, galleries, tutorials, clip art, and more. at: is a good source for free high quality computer textures, and tutorials on how to make them.