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_The Peshitta Holy Bible_ translated by David Bauscher
#61
Do you think Revelation 18:2 originally had:
"cried mightily with a great voice"?
"cried with a great voice"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"demons, and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean bird, and a prison of every unclean creature also having been hated"?
"demons, a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird"?
"demons and a prison to every impure and detestable spirit"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:2
Berean Literal Bible
And he cried out in a mighty voice, saying: "Fallen, Fallen is Babylon the great! And she has become a habitation of demons, and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean bird, and a prison of every unclean creature also having been hated.
King James Bible
And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he shouted with a great voice: “Fallen, fallen, Babylon the Great! And it is become the abode for Demons and a prison to every impure and detestable spirit.”
Literal Standard Version
and he cried in might [with] a great voice, saying, “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! And she became a habitation of demons, and a hold of every unclean spirit, and a hold of every unclean and hateful bird,
World English Bible
He cried with a mighty voice, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, and she has become a habitation of demons, a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird!

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:3 originally had:
"because all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication"?
"because she mixed of the wine of her fornication for all the nations"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:3
Berean Literal Bible
For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality; and the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality with her; and the merchants of the earth have been enriched through the power of her luxury."
King James Bible
For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
“Because she mixed of the wine of her fornication for all the nations, and the Kings of The Earth committed fornication with her, and the merchants of The Earth have become rich by the power of her infatuation.”
Literal Standard Version
because all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth committed whoredom with her, and merchants of the earth were made rich from the power of her indulgence.”
World English Bible
For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality, the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury."

===============================================.
Revelation 18:4 - And I heard another voice from heaven say: "Go out of her, my people, so that you have no part in her sins and do not receive from her plagues,
Go out of her ... - i.e. Go from the city of Babylon. For the flight of God's people from Babylon, see also Jer. 50:8, 28 and Jer. 51:6.

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:5 originally had:
"for her sins have cleaved up to heaven"?
"for her sins have reached unto heaven"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"The Language of the Apocalypse" (1965) by C.G. Ozanne. PDF:
https://legacy.tyndalehouse.com/tynbul/L...alypse.pdf
....Revelation 18:5. A literal translation of the relevant clause is as follows: 'for her (Babylon's) sins have cleaved up to (ἄχρι) heaven.' But this conveys no meaning. Either her sins reached up to heaven, or they cleaved to heaven; it cannot mean both at once.

Revelation 18:5
Berean Literal Bible
For her sins have been heaped as high as heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities.
King James Bible
For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
“Because the sins in her have touched Heaven, and God has called her evil to mind.”
Literal Standard Version
because her sins have reached up to Heaven, and God remembered her unrighteousness.
World English Bible
for her sins have reached to the sky, and God has remembered her iniquities.
Young's Literal Translation
because her sins did follow -- unto the heaven, and God did remember her unrighteousness.

Rev 18:5 (APNT)
because her sins have reached up to heaven and God has remembered her wicked [deeds].

Revelation 18:5
https://biblehub.com/interlinear/revelation/18-5.htm
hoti/ ὅτι/ For
ekollēthēsan/ ἐκολλήθησαν/ joined together, per a 1975 Zondervan interlinear
autēs/ αὐτῆς/ her
hai/ αἱ/ who, which, what, that - https://biblehub.com/greek/3739.htm
hamartiai/ ἁμαρτίαι/ sins
achri/ ἄχρι/ as high as
tou/ τοῦ/ the
ouranou/ οὐρανοῦ/ heaven
kai/ καὶ/ and
emnēmoneusen/ ἐμνημόνευσεν/ has remembered
ho/ ὁ/ who, which, what, that - https://biblehub.com/greek/3739.htm
Theos/ Θεὸς/ God
ta/ τὰ/ the
adikēmata/ ἀδικήματα/ iniquities
autēs/ αὐτῆς/ of her

2853. kollaó
https://biblehub.com/greek/2853.htm
kollaó: to glue, unite
Original Word: κολλάω
Part of Speech: Verb
Transliteration: kollaó
Phonetic Spelling: (kol-lah'-o)
Definition: to glue, unite
Usage: (lit: I glue); hence: mid. and pass: I join myself closely, cleave, adhere (to), I keep company (with), of friendly intercourse.
HELPS Word-studies
2853 kolláō (from kólla, "glue") – to bond (cleave), adhere to (literally, "glued together"); to cleave, join to; (figuratively) intimately connected in a soul-knit friendship.
[2853 (kolláō) is used "frequently in ancient medical language of the uniting of wounds" (WS, 180).]

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:6 originally had:
"Render to her as she rendered to you, and"?
"Render to her as she rendered, and"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:6
Berean Literal Bible
Give back to her as she also has rendered; and pay back double to her, twofold according to her works. In the cup which she has mixed, mix double to her.
King James Bible
Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
“Pay her just as she also has paid, and give her double for her deeds. In the cup which she has mixed, mix her a double.”
Literal Standard Version
Render to her as she also rendered to you, and double to her twofold according to her works; in the cup that she mingled mingle to her double.
World English Bible
Return to her just as she returned, and repay her double as she did, and according to her works. In the cup which she mixed, mix to her double.

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:7 originally had:
"glorified herself and lived in luxury, give"?
"glorified and exalted herself, give"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:7
Berean Literal Bible
So much as she has glorified herself and lived in luxury, give to her as much torment and misery, because in her heart she says, 'I sit as a queen, and I am never a widow, and never shall I see mourning.'
King James Bible
How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
“Because of that in which she glorified and exalted herself, give such suffering and sorrow, for she said in her heart, 'I sit a queen, and I am not a widow and I shall not see sorrow.”
World English Bible
However much she glorified herself, and grew wanton, so much give her of torment and mourning. For she says in her heart, 'I sit a queen, and am no widow, and will in no way see mourning.'

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:8 originally mentioned "death"?
(The Crawford ms. lacks such, but does have twice a word that looks very similar to the Aramaic word for "death." The UBS erroneously has "death" in Rev 18:8.)

Going back to Revelation 6:8, do you think it's better understood as saying:
"kill with death"?
"kill with plague"?

Rev 18:8 (based on Glaser)
Because of this, in one day will come upon/over/against her
[m-kh-u-th-a] plagues/injuries
[m-kh-u-th-a] plagues/injuries
and mourning/sorrow and famine/hunger,
and are consumed/burned-up in fire
because of the strong/mighty/powerful MrYa [Master YHWH] that judges her.

Revelation 18:8
Because of this, in one day will come the
4127 plēgai/ πληγαὶ/ plagues
of her,
2288 thanatos/ θάνατος/ death
and
penthos/ πένθος/ misery
and
limos/ λιμός/ famine,
and with fire she will be burned up;
because mighty [is the]
Kyrios/ Κύριος/ Lord
the
Theos/ Θεὸς/ God
the [One] having judged her.

_L'influence de l'araméen sur les traducteurs de la LXX principalement, sur les traducteurs grecs postérieurs, ainsi que sur les scribes de la Vorlage de la LXX_ (French, with a "Conclusions" chapter in English) by Anne-Françoise Loiseau (2016), 261pp.
https://www.amazon.com/Linfluence-laram%...01M0PUT0T/
About the book:
Loiseau presents examples of Greek translations of verses from the Hebrew Bible that clearly illustrate the influence of Aramaic or Late Hebrew on the semantics of the Septuagint translators. The author postulates that the Greek translators based their translations on Hebrew-Aramaic equivalents maintained as lists or even on proto-targumim such as those found at Qumran, both predecessors of the later Aramaic targumic translations. Loiseau's examples provide convincing explanations for different coincidences occurring between the Greek translations and the interpretative traditions found in the targumim and help elucidate a number of puzzling translations where two Aramaic words that are very similar graphically or phonetically were erroneously interchanged.

On 252:
In the LXX the substantive λοιμός [loimos, Strong's 3061] "plague, pestilence" is never used to translate Hebrew רבֶדֶּ [deber, Strong's 1698], which has the same meaning. Indeed, this Hebrew word is nearly always translated by θάνατος [thanatos, Strong's 2288] "death"; this can be explained by the fact that in Aramaic the two words מותא [4 letters] "death" and ... [those same 4 letters + an additional letter] "plague" are quasi-homonyms (just as are Assyrian _muta_ and _mutanu_) and that in practically all cases where the "plague" is mentioned in the MT [Masoretic Text], it is translated by מותא [4 letters] "death" in the targum.

It seems to me that the Aramaic m-u-th-a "death" can mean "plague," despite the CAL only listing "death" as the definition.

"Hebrew/Aramaic Word Study -- Plague" by Chaim Bentorah (Mar 12, 2020)
https://www.chaimbentorah.com/2020/03/he...dy-plague/
MACHAL, MAUTA אתומ לחמ Mem Cheth Lamed Mem Vav Taw Aleph ....
Revelation 6:8: "And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death [better: plague; or per Glaser, poison -df], and with the beasts of the earth"
....and the pale horse bring death and hell. The word death in Greek is thanatos which is your common word for death but there are three occasions where the word is used for a plague. The Aramaic... which was the native language of John the Revelator, is mauta which means a plague.

1698. deber
https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1698.htm
deber: pestilence
Original Word: רבֶדֶּ
Part of Speech: Noun Masculine
Transliteration: deber
Phonetic Spelling: (deh'-ber)
Definition: pestilence

mwt, mwtˀ (moṯ, maw/ōtā) n.m. death
http://dukhrana.com/lexicon/word.php?adr...ize=125%25
1 death Com. Nerab.1.10 ... may they kill you with a wicked death. TAD B2.3 R.3 ... I hereby grant you during my life and at my death. Ezra7:26 ... his punishment is to be done to him, be it for death, corporal punishment, fine of property, or imprisonment. PAT1417:1.5 ... that she erected for them after their death. NabTomb 9:6 ... should PN be in GN and have a fatal event. 4Q545.1.1.3... . TgJ 2Sam1:23 ... in their death they were not separated from their people. VR 794:2(1) ... since we did not attend him in his life, let us attend him in his death. TN Deut29:17 ... . OS MtCur16:28 ... there are people of those here today that shall not taste death. BT Yev 63a(41) ... is there something harder than death?. PJ Gen3:6 ... Samael, the angel of Death. (a) as an animate character, Death JLAtg, Syr.
Contra PSm col. 2057, there is no evidence that ... in Clr refers to "suicide". It is surely simply "a natural death". ....
Derivatives:
br mwtˀ (bar mawtā) n.m. deserving of death
mwtn, mwtnˀ (maw/ō/ūtān, maw/ō/ūtānā) n.m. plague, pestilence
mwtny (mawtānāy) adj. pestilential
plgwt mwtˀ (pālgūṯ mawtā) n.f. state of being half dead

_The Influence of Post-Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic on the Translator of Septuagint Isaiah_ (2017) by Seulgi Byun
https://www.amazon.com/Influence-Post-bi...567672387/

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:9 originally had:
"committed sexual immorality and lived luxuriously with her, will"?
"committed sexual immorality with her and exalted themselves, will"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:9
Berean Literal Bible
And the kings of the earth, the ones having committed sexual immorality and having lived luxuriously with her, will weep and will wail for her when they see the smoke of her burning,
King James Bible
And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the Kings of The Earth, who committed fornication with her and exalted themselves, will weep and wail concerning her, when they see the smoke of her burning,
Literal Standard Version
and the kings of the earth will weep over her and strike themselves for her, who committed whoredom and indulged with her, when they may see the smoke of her burning,
World English Bible
The kings of the earth, who committed sexual immorality and lived wantonly with her, will weep and wail over her, when they look at the smoke of her burning,

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:10 originally had:
"Woe, woe"?
"Woe, woe, woe"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:10
Berean Literal Bible
standing from afar because of the fear of her torment, saying: "Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon, the strong city! For in one hour your judgment has come."
King James Bible
Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
As they stand opposite from fear of her punishment, and they will say, “Woe, woe, woe, the great city Babylon! The Mighty city! For in one hour your judgment has come!”

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:13 originally had:
5 items here, or 4 items here, e.g.
"and cinnamon and spice and incense and myrrh and frankincense" vs.
"and cinnamon and perfumes and myrrh and incense"? (the Crawford ms. contains 4 items there)

"and wine and oil and fine flour and wheat and cattle and sheep and horses"?
"and wine and oil and fine flour and sheep and horses"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"Syntatic Double Translation in the _Targumin_" by Michael Carasik, 217-231, on 217-218, 229, in
_Aramaic in Postbiblical Judaism and Early Christianity: Papers from the 2004 National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar at Duke University_ (2010), 300pp.
https://www.alibris.com/booksearch.detai...1575061788
It is by now a commonplace to speak of "double" translation in the Aramaic targums of the Hebrew Bible. In its simplest form, this involves "the rendition of a single verb or noun by a translational doublet." .... Michael Klein.... notes that many biblical phrases and longer passages are duplicated or even triplicated, in comparable but not identical language. ....as Martin McNamara points out, "The point in the double rendering may have been the targumist's desire to bring out the wealth of the [Hebrew text]." ....some verses in the Hebrew Bible can be grammatically parsed in more than one way. In such cases, the targum sometimes translates in accordance with _both_ possibilities. ....it is just as natural for a Jewish reader to look at the originally unpointed text of the Hebrew Bible and see it as deliberately open to multiple intended meanings. As we have noted in our discussion of Exod 17:9, it is sometimes possible to translate in a way that leaves the multiple possibilities open. More often, the shift to a new language demands that the translator choose a single one of the possible options. But the Jewish translators of the Bible into Aramaic sometimes refused to make this choice.

Revelation 18:13
Berean Literal Bible
and cinnamon, and spice, and incense, and myrrh, and frankincense;
and wine, and oil, and finest flour, and wheat;
and cattle, and sheep, and of horses, and of chariots;
and of slaves and souls of men.
King James Bible
And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense,
and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat,
and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots,
and slaves, and souls of men.
Literal Standard Version
and cinnamon, and amomum, and incense, and ointment, and frankincense,
and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat,
and cattle, and sheep, and of horses, and of chariots,
and of bodies and souls of men.

Rev 18:13 (APNT)
https://aramaicdb.lightofword.org/en/new...ons-search?
and cinnamon and perfumes and myrrh and incense
and wine and oil and fine flour
and sheep and horses and chariots
and the bodies and souls of men.

Rev 18:13 (based on Glaser)
and cinnamon and fragrance/perfume and ointment/oil and incense/frankincense
and wine and oil/ointment and fine flour
and sheep and harnessed horses and chariots
and bodies/flesh and souls/lives of sons of men.

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:14 originally had:
"the fruits"?
"your fruits"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:14
Berean Literal Bible
"And the ripe fruits of the desire of your soul are departed from you, and all the sumptuous things and the splendid things have departed from you, and they will not find them any longer."
King James Bible
And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.
Literal Standard Version
And the fruits of the desire of your soul went away from you, and all things—the sumptuous and the radiant—went away from you, and no more at all may you find them.
World English Bible
The fruits which your soul lusted after have been lost to you, and all things that were dainty and sumptuous have perished from you, and you will find them no more at all.

Rev 18:14 (APNT)
And your fruit, the desire of your soul, has gone away from you and everything luxurious and celebrated has gone away from you and you will not see them any more,

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:15 originally had:
"The merchants of these things, who were made rich by her, shall stand"?
"And the merchants of these things, who grew rich by her, will not find them, and they will stand"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:15
Berean Literal Bible
The merchants of these things having been enriched from her will stand from afar, weeping and mourning because of the fear of her torment,
King James Bible
The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing,
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the merchants of these things, who grew rich by her, will not find them, and they will stand opposite from fear of her punishment, weeping and lamenting,
Literal Standard Version
The merchants of these things, who were made rich by her, will stand far off because of the fear of her torment, weeping, and mourning,
World English Bible
The merchants of these things, who were made rich by her, will stand far away for the fear of her torment, weeping and mourning;

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:21 originally had:
"And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone"?
"And one of the angels took a mighty stone, great as a millstone"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:21
Berean Literal Bible
And one mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast it into the sea, saying: "Thus Babylon will be cast down with violence, the great city, and shall never be found any longer.
King James Bible
And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And one of the Angels took a mighty stone, great as a millstone, and cast it into the sea and said, “In this way with violence, Babylon The Great City will be thrown down, and it will not exist again!”
Literal Standard Version
And one strong messenger took up a stone as a great millstone, and cast [it] into the sea, saying, “Thus with violence will Babylon be cast, the great city, and may not be found anymore at all;

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:22 originally had:
"will not be heard in you again. And any craftsmen of any craft shall never be found in you any longer, and the sound of a millstone shall never be heard in you any longer"?
"will not be heard in you again"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:22
Berean Literal Bible
And the sound of harpists and musicians, and flute players and trumpeters, shall never be heard in you any longer. And any craftsmen of any craft shall never be found in you any longer, and the sound of a millstone shall never be heard in you any longer.
King James Bible
And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
Literal Standard Version
and voice of harpists, and musicians, and pipers, and trumpeters, may not be heard at all in you anymore; and any craftsman of any craft may not be found at all in you anymore; and noise of a millstone may not be heard at all in you anymore;

Rev 18:22 (APNT)
And the sound of the harp and of the shofar and of all kinds of music and trumpeters will not be heard in you any more.

===============================================.
Do you think Revelation 18:24 originally had:
"the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all that were slain on the earth"?
"the blood of prophets and of saints who were slain on earth"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 18:24
Berean Literal Bible
And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints and of all those having been slain on the earth.
King James Bible
And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And in her was found the blood of The Prophets and Holy Men who were murdered on Earth.
Literal Standard Version
and in her blood of prophets and of holy ones was found, and of all those who have been slain on the earth.”
World English Bible
In her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on the earth."

Rev 18:24 (APNT)
and the blood of the prophets and the holy [ones] who were killed on the earth was found in her."

Revelation 18:24 - In her the blood has been found from the prophets and the saints who were killed on earth."
And of the saints ... are - this is the reading of the Aramean Peshitta reading. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR is: "And of the saints and all who are slaughtered on earth."
Reply
#62
_Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples by Maximilian Zerwick S.J.: English Adapted from the Fourth Latin Edition_ by Joseph Smith S.J. (1963), 185pp., on 65-66
https://www.amazon.com/Biblical-Greek-Il...876535543/
204. The proleptic use of pronouns (^3) [3: Cf. M. Black, _An Aramaic Approach to the Gospels and Acts_, Oxford 1946, 70-74], i.e. their use to <introduce> a noun which follows (cf. the examples at the end of the paragraph) is a pure Aramaism, and has been almost entirely eliminated from the usual text, but Codex Bezae (D) has preserved several clear cases which have escaped correction and suggest what may have been the style of the first servile versions of the Aramaic tradition. We may cite as examples (from D) Mt 12,45 ... and Mk 5:15 ....

205. Even in the usual text there seem to remain at least some traces of this Aramaism, whose recognition as such solves the problem set by certain pronouns otherwise difficult to explain in an intensive sense, e.g. Mt 3,4 .... Similarly Mk 6,17.22 ... Mk 12,36f ... Lk 10,7 .... From Jo cf. 9,13 and 18. Perhaps an Aramaic originally ... may explain why Mk 8,38 has ..., while Lk 9,26 has ....

(looking at a 1975 Zondervan interlinear of the Greek)
Lk 10:7 in same And the house remain
Jn 9:13 they lead him to the Pharisees-- the at one time blind
Jn 9:18 parents of him-- of the one having seen

(based on Younan's translation of the Aramaic)
Lk 10:7 in that same And in that house remain.... for he-- the worker-- is worthy (of) his wages
Jn 9:13 And they brought him-- he who from the beginning was blind-- to the Pharisees
Jn 9:18 [I don't detect anything in the Aramaic]

For Mk 8:38 and Lk 9:26, I don't notice anything unusual in the: 1975 Zondervan Greek; Bezae Greek; Aramaic.

Mk 8:38 in Bezae, pg 609
http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-NN-00002-00041/609
πϛος δ αν επεσχυνθησεται εμε
και τους εμους λογους εν τη γενεα ταυτη
τη μοιχαλιδι και αμαρτωλω ·
και ο ϋϊος του ανθρωπου επεσχυνθησεται αυτο(ν)
οταν ελθη εν τη δοξη του πατρος αυτου
μετα των αγγελων των αγιων

Lk 9:26 in Bezae, pg 425
http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-NN-00002-00041/425
ϙζος γαρ αν αιπεσχυνθη εμε και τους εμους
τουτον ο ϋιος του ανθρωπου επαισχυνθησεται
οταν ελθη εν τη δοξη αυτου και του πρς αυτου
και των αγιων αγγελων
Reply
#63
When Rev 19:1 was originally written, do you think it had:
"'like a loud voice"?
"a loud voice"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"a great multitude"?
"many multitudes"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"salvation, glory, honor and power"?
"salvation, power and honor"?
"salvation, honor and strength"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"to the Lord our God"?
"to our God"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:1
Berean Literal Bible
After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, crying out: "Hallelujah! The salvation and the glory and the power to our God!
King James Bible
And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And after these things, I heard a great sound of many multitudes in Heaven saying, "Hallelujah! Redemption, glory and power to our God!
World English Bible
After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God:

Revelation 19:1 - After this I heard a great sound from many multitudes in heaven. They said, "Hallelu-Jah, propitiation, honor and strength be to our GOD.
a loud voice - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek TR. The reading of the Greek NA28 and MHT reads: 'like a loud voice'.
reconciliation, honor and strength - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28 reads: 'the salvation, the power and the honour', while the reading of the Greek TR is: 'the salvation, the glory, the honor and the power'.
to our GOD - or: 'from our GOD'. This is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and MHT. Only from the Greek TR is the reading: 'to the Lord our GOD'.

============================== =====
semiticism: 'require X's blood from Y's hand' = 'execute Y for X's death'

Revelation 19:2 - For his judgments are true and righteous, because he judged the great harlot, who devastated the earth with her fornication, and took the blood of his servants out of her hand."
claimed from her hand - these words testify to a Semitic idiom rather than a Greek idiom (see 2 Sm. 4:11).

Revelation 19:2
Berean Literal Bible
For His judgments are true and righteous, because He has judged the great prostitute, who had corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and He has avenged the blood of His servants, out of her hand."
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
For his judgments are true and just, because he has judged The Great Whore, who corrupted The Earth with her whoredom and he has required the blood of his Servants from her hand.

Rev 19:2 (APNT)
https://aramaicdb.lightofword.org/en/new...ons-search
because true and upright [are] his judgments, because he has judged the great harlot who has corrupted the earth with her fornication and has avenged the blood of his servants from her hands."

Genesis 9 (King James)
4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.
5 And surely your blood of your lives will I require;
at the hand of every beast will I require it,
and at the hand of man;
at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man.
6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood,
by man shall his blood be shed:
for in the image of God made he man.

Genesis 9:5 (Young's Literal)
'And only your blood for your lives do I require; from the hand of every living thing I require it, and from the hand of man, from the hand of every man's brother I require the life of man;

2 Samuel 4:11 (Literal Standard)
Also-- when wicked men have slain the righteous man in his own house, on his bed; and now, do I not require his blood from your hand, and have taken you away from the earth?"

Ezekiel 3:18 (Literal Standard)
In My saying to the wicked: You surely die; and you have not warned him, nor have spoken to warn the wicked from his wicked way, so that he lives; he-the wicked-dies in his iniquity, and I require his blood from your hand.

Ezekiel 3:20 (Literal Standard)
And in the turning back of the righteous from his righteousness, and he has done perversity, and I have put a stumbling-block before him, he dies; because you have not warned him, he dies in his sin, and his righteousness that he has done is not remembered, and I require his blood from your hand.

Ezekiel 33:6 (Literal Standard)
And the watchman, when he sees the sword coming in, And he has not blown with a horn, And the people have not been warned, And a sword comes in, And takes away a soul from them, He is taken away in his iniquity, And I require his blood from the hand of the watchman.

Ezekiel 33:8 (Literal Standard)
In My saying to the wicked, O wicked one-- you surely die, And you have not spoken to warn the wicked from his way, He-- the wicked-- dies in his iniquity, And I require his blood from your hand.

Rev 19:2 (based on Glaser)
http://dukhrana.com/crawford/
https://www.amazon.com/Crawford-Codex-Re...365323293/
https://www.lulu.com/en/us/shop/greg-gla...6dv7w.html
because of his truthful and upright judgments, because he judged the great whore/fornicator that/hand of/that destroyed/corrupted the earth in her fornicating/whoring, and required blood/likeness of his servants/works from her hands.

============================== =====
When Rev 19:3 was originally written, do you think it had:
"he said"?
"they said"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:3
Berean Literal Bible
And a second time they said: "Hallelujah! And her smoke goes up to the ages of the ages."
King James Bible
And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
Again, they said, "Hallelujah!" And her smoke ascends to the eternity of eternities.
Literal Standard Version
and a second time they said, "Hallelujah"; and her smoke comes up through the ages of the ages!
World English Bible
A second said, "Hallelujah! Her smoke goes up forever and ever."

Revelation 19:3 - They said again, "Hallelu-Jah!" And her smoke ascends forever and ever."
They said - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and TR. Only from the Greek MHT the reading is: "He said."
again - or: 'for the second time'.

============================== =====
When Rev 19:4 was originally written, do you think it had:
"God"?
"our God"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:4
Berean Literal Bible
And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God, the One sitting on the throne, saying: "Amen, Hallelujah!"
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the 24 Elders and The Four Beasts fell down and worshiped our God who sits on the throne, and they were saying, "Amen! Hallelujah!"
Literal Standard Version
And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and they worshiped God who is sitting on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah!"
World English Bible
The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah!"

Revelation 19:4 - The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped our GOD, who sat on the throne, saying, "Amen, Hallelu-Jah!"
our GOD - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta reading, also in Op. 19:1, 5. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT, and TR is simply, "GOD."

============================== =====
When Rev 19:6 was originally written, do you think it had:
"great multitude"?
"many multitudes"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"the Lord God our Almighty"?
"our Lord, the God, the Almighty"?
"the Lord our God, the Almighty"?
"the MrYa God the Almighty" i.e. 'the Master YHWH God the Almighty'? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:6
Berean Literal Bible
And I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the sound of many waters, and like a sound of mighty thunders, saying: "Hallelujah! For the Lord God our Almighty has reigned.
King James Bible
And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I heard a sound like that of many multitudes, and like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty thunders saying, "Hallelujah! For THE LORD JEHOVAH God Almighty reigns!
Literal Standard Version
and I heard as the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, "Hallelujah! Because our Lord, the God, the Almighty, has reigned!
World English Bible
I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns!

Revelation 19:6 - And I heard a sound like that of many multitudes and like the roaring of many waters and like the mighty roar of thunder: "Hallelu-Jah, for the LORD GOD Almighty reigns (as King).
sound ... roar ... thump - in Greek and Aramaic this is three times the same word that can mean 'voice' or: 'sound'.
like the mighty roar of thunder - or: 'like the sound of heavy thunder(blows)'.
many multitudes - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'of a great multitude'
GOD - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28, although the Aramaic Peshitta is the only one to immediately precede 'the LORD'. The reading of the Greek NA28 reads: 'our GOD'.

============================== =====
When Rev 19:7 was originally written, do you think it had:
"let us rejoice"?
"we rejoice"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"his bride"?
"his wife"? (both the Greek and Aramaic contain that)

Revelation 19:7
King James Bible
Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.
Literal Standard Version
May we rejoice and exult, and give the glory to Him, because the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready;
World English Bible
Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready."

Rev 19:7 (APNT)
https://aramaicdb.lightofword. org/en/new-parallel-versions- search
We are glad and rejoice. We will give him praise, because the marriage feast of the Lamb has come and his wife has made herself ready."

Revelation 19:7 - We rejoice and feast, and we glorify Him, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has prepared herself,
we rejoice and celebrate - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "Let us rejoice and rejoice."
his wife - in some translations (from Greek and from Aramaic) it says 'his bride', but that is not the correct translation, neither from Aramaic nor from Greek.

============================== =====
When Rev 19:9 was originally written, do you think it opened with:
"And he said to me"?
"And they said to me"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:9
Berean Literal Bible
And he says to me, "Write, 'Blessed are those having been invited to the supper of the marriage of the Lamb.'" And he says to me, "These are the true words of God."
King James Bible
And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And they said to me, "Write, 'Blessed are they who are called to the wedding supper of the Lamb!'" And one said to me, "These are the true words of God."
Literal Standard Version
And he says to me, "Write: Blessed [are] they who have been called to the banquet of the marriage of the Lamb"; and he says to me, "These [are] the true words of God";
World English Bible
He said to me, "Write, 'Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.'" He said to me, "These are true words of God."

Rev 19:9 (APNT)
And they said to me, "Write. Blessed [are] those who are invited [ones] to the supper of the marriage feast of the Lamb." And he said to me, "These are the true words of God."

Revelation 19:9 - They said to me, "Write: Blessed are they that are called to the Marriage Supper of the Lamb!" (Then) someone said to me: "These are the true words of GOD."
They said to me - this is the reading of the Aramean Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR is: 'And he said to me'.

============================== =====
When Rev 19:10 was originally written, do you think it had:
"Behold-- no"?
"No"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:10
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I fell before his feet and worshiped him, and he said to me, "No! I am your fellow Servant and of your brothers who have the testimony of Yeshua. Worship God, rather, for the testimony of Yeshua is the spirit of prophecy."
Literal Standard Version
and I fell before his feet to worship him, and he says to me, "Behold-No! I am your fellow servant, and of your brothers, those having the testimony of Jesus; worship God, for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of the prophecy."

Rev 19:10 (APNT)
And I fell at his feet and worshipped him. And he said to me, "No. I am your fellow-servant and one of your brothers, those who have the testimony of Jesus. Worship God abundantly, for the testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of prophecy."

Revelation 19:10 - I fell at his feet to worship him, (but) he said to me: "No, (don't do that)! I am a fellow servant with you and with your brothers who have the testimony of Jesus. Worship GOD, for the testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of prophecy."
No - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR is: "Look, not!".

============================== =====
When Rev 19:12 was originally written, do you think it had:
"names written, and a name written"?
"a name written"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:12
Berean Literal Bible
Now His eyes are like a flame of fire, and upon His head many diadems, having a name having been written, which no one except He Himself knows,
King James Bible
His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And his eyes were like flames of fire, and many diadems were upon his head and he had The Name written, which no one knew but he alone.
Literal Standard Version
and His eyes [are] as a flame of fire, and on His head [are] many crowns-having a Name written that no one has known, except Himself,
World English Bible
His eyes are a flame of fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has names written and a name written which no one knows but he himself.

Rev 19:12 (APNT)
And his eyes [were] like a flame of fire and on his head [were] many crown headbands. And he had a name written [on him] that no [one] knew, except he.

Revelation 19:12 - His eyes were like flames of fire, and on his head were many crowns, and upon him was written the name, which no one knew but he alone.
.... The reading of the Greek MHT reads: "names written, and a name was written..."

============================== =====
When Rev 19:14 was originally written, do you think it had:
"The armies that are in heaven"?
"The armies of heaven"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:14
Berean Literal Bible
And the armies who were in heaven, having been clothed in pure, white, fine linen were following Him upon white horses.
King James Bible
And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the army of Heaven were joined to him on white horses and were wearing linen white and pure.
Literal Standard Version
And the armies in Heaven were following Him on white horses, clothed in fine linen-white and pure;
World English Bible
The armies which are in heaven followed him on white horses, clothed in white, pure, fine linen.

Revelation 19:14 - The hosts of heaven followed Him on white horses, clothed in pure white linen
The heavenly armies - literally: 'The armies of heaven'. This is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "The armies that are in heaven."

============================== =====
When Rev 19:15 was originally written, do you think it had:
"out of his mouth came a sharp sword"?
"out of his mouth came a sharp two-edged sword"?
"from their mouths came sharp swords"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"that with it he should smite the nations"?
"with which they will kill the nations"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"fierceness of the wrath of Almighty God"/ "fury of the wrath of Almighty God"?
"fierceness and wrath of Almighty God"/ "wrath and the anger of Almighty God"?
"wrath of Almighty God"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:15
Berean Literal Bible
And out of His mouth goes forth a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations; and He will shepherd them with a rod of iron. And He treads the press of the wine
of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty.
King James Bible
And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress
of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And sharp swords came out of their mouths by which they will kill the nations, and he will shepherd them with a rod of iron and he treads the winepress
of the wrath of Almighty God.
Literal Standard Version
and out of His mouth proceeds a sharp sword, that with it He may strike the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron, and He treads the press of the wine
of the wrath and the anger of God the Almighty,
World English Bible
Out of his mouth proceeds a sharp, double-edged sword, that with it he should strike the nations. He will rule them with an iron rod. He treads the winepress
of the fierceness of the wrath of God, the Almighty.

Revelation 19:15 - Out of their mouths came sharp swords with which they will slay the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron, and He(himself) will tread the winepress
of the wrath of GOD Almighty.
From their mouths came sharp swords - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28 reads: "Out of his mouth came a sharp sword." ....the reading of the Greek MHT is: "Out of his mouth came a sharp two-edged sword." In Aramaic, the words "sharp" and "double" are very similar. It is therefore rather conceivable that the various Greek versions of this verse derive from the Aramaic version rather than the other way around.
with which they will kill the nations - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'to smite the nations with it'.
of the wrath of GOD ... - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of ... reads: '... of the wrath of the wrath of GOD'.

To reiterate comments re: the misrendering at Greek Revelation 1:16:
It's a semiticism to view swords as having mouths that drink blood. A 'two-mouthed' sword is a double-edged sword. The original Aramaic of Rev 1:16 has a word that can mean "his mouth," "his voice," or "his edge"-- as in, his sword. The original Aramaic has a word that, if the letter "m" is added to it, becomes spear/lance.
When Rev 1:16 got translated into Greek, the Aramaic got mis-rendered as "out of his mouth a sharp two-edged sword is proceeding."

Revelation 1:16, based on Greg Glaser's interlinear of Crawford, dukhrana.com
and having to him in his hand of right seven stars/planets, and from
p-u-m-h [his-mouth/ his-voice/ his-command/ his-entrance/ his-edge]
proceeds
r-u-kh-a [spirit(s)/ breath/ wind/ space] [Crawford has 0xwr ("spirit(s)"), whereas SP has 0xmwr {r-u-m-ch-a} ("spear"). Crawford better harmonizes with Revelation 2:12 and 19:15 - GG. The UBS on dukhrana has an error.]
energetic/ sharp/ quick/ acute/ velocity,
and his appearance like the sun was showing/revealing/striking in his power.

============================== =====
When Rev 19:17 was originally written, do you think it had:
"saw one angel"?
"saw another angel"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"all birds"?
"the birds"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"the supper of the great God"?
"the great supper of God"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:17
Berean Literal Bible
And I saw one angel standing in the sun, and he cried out in loud a voice, saying to all the birds flying in mid-heaven, "Come, gather yourselves unto the great supper of God,
King James Bible
And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I saw another Angel standing in the sun and crying with a loud voice, and he said to the birds flying in the midst of the sky, "Come, gather to the great supper of God",
World English Bible
I saw an angel standing in the sun. He cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the sky, "Come! Be gathered together to the great supper of God,

Revelation 19:17 - And I saw another angel standing in the sun. He cried out with a loud voice, and said to the birds that flew in mid-heaven, "Come, gather yourselves for the great supper of GOD,
other - we find this word only in the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and not in the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR.
the birds - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR is: 'all birds'.
the great meal of GOD - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28. The reading of the reading of the Greek MHT and TR reads: 'the supper of (the) great GOD'.

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When Rev 19:18 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the flesh of all, both free and slaves"?
"the flesh of the free and of slaves"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:18
Berean Literal Bible
so that you may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of commanders, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of horses and of those sitting on them, and the flesh of all, both free and slaves, and small and great."
King James Bible
That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"To eat the flesh of Kings and the flesh of Captains of thousands and the flesh of Warriors and the flesh of horses and of those sitting upon them, and the flesh of Freemen and of Servants, and of small and of great."
Literal Standard Version
that you may eat flesh of kings, and flesh of chiefs of thousands, and flesh of strong men, and flesh of horses, and of those sitting on them, and the flesh of all-freemen and servants-both small and great."
World English Bible
that you may eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of those who sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, and small and great."

Revelation 19:18 - to eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains over thousands, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and of them that sit upon them, the flesh of free and of bondmen, of small and of great. "
the flesh of the free and of slaves ... - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'the flesh of all, of the free and of slaves...'

============================== =====
When Rev 19:19 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies"?
"the beast and its armies and the kings of the earth and their soldiers"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:19
Berean Literal Bible
And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, having been gathered together to make war with the One sitting on the horse and with His army.
King James Bible
And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I saw The Beast and its armies and the Kings of The Earth and their Soldiers who gathered to make war with him who sat upon the horse, and with his Soldiers.
Literal Standard Version
And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, having been gathered together to make war with Him who is sitting on the horse, and with His army;

Revelation 19:19 - And I saw the beast and his armies and the kings of the earth and their soldiers who were gathered together to make war against him who sat on the horse and against his soldiers.
their soldiers ... are soldiers - this is the reading of the Aramean Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'their armies ... his army'.

============================== =====
When Rev 19:20 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the two were cast living into the lake of the fire"?
"the two went down and were cast into the lake of fire"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 19:20
Berean Literal Bible
And the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet, the one having done the signs before him, by which he deceived those having received the mark of the beast and those worshiping its image. The two were cast living into the lake of fire burning with brimstone.
King James Bible
And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And The Beast was captured and The False Prophet with it, who did signs before it by which he seduced those who received the mark of The Beast, and those who worshiped its image; and both went down and were cast into The Lake of Fire that burns also with brimstone.
Literal Standard Version
and the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet who did the signs before him, in which he led astray those who received the mark of the beast, and those who worshiped his image; the two were cast living into the lake of the fire that is burning with brimstone;
World English Bible
The beast was taken, and with him the false prophet who worked the signs in his sight, with which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur.

Rev 19:20 (APNT)
And the creature was captured and the false prophet with him, who performed signs before him by which he seduced those who received the mark of the creature and those who worshipped his image. And both of them went down and they were thrown into the lake of burning fire and of sulfur.

Revelation 19:20 - The beast was taken, and with him the false prophet, who wrought signs before his eyes, by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image. These two went down and were cast into the lake of fire, which also burns with brimstone.
The two descended and were ... thrown, which also burns with sulfur - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "These two were cast alive into the lake of fire, which burns with sulfur."
Reply
#64
Syntactical Evidence of Semitic Sources in Greek Documents
by Raymond A. Martin
https://books.google.com/books?id=WwZLAw...&q&f=false

"(How) Can We Tell If a Greek Apocryphon or Pseudepigraphon Has Been Translated from Hebrew or Aramaic?" by James R. Davila
https://otp.wp.st-andrews.ac.uk/abstract...r-aramaic/
_It is very difficult to distinguish translated Hebrew from translated Aramaic, since the vocabulary and grammar of the two languages are so similar_. It is true that there are some points of distinction that may carry over into a translation. Hebrew has a construction involving the infinitive construct with a preposition and this construction is lacking in Aramaic but is often reflected in Greek translations of Hebrew. A Greek translation with examples of this construction would be unlikely to have come from an Aramaic Vorlage. Likewise, R. H. Charles successfully deduced that much of the Book of the Watchers was composed in Aramaic, in part because transliterated words in the Greek translation reflected the long “a” of the emphatic (definite) ending, found in Aramaic but not Hebrew.[9]
9: APOT 2:172-77. However, he incorrectly concluded that chapters 1-5 were composed in Hebrew. Only Aramaic fragments of this material has been found at Qumran.
....
If we move from retroversion to the comparatively more tractable problem of _establishing translational Semitic interference_ in a Greek text, a strict methodology would need to adhere to the following steps. One needs to look at all possible linguistic and stylistic features (such as vocabulary, morphology, syntax, word order, and poetic elements) for apparent Semitisms – Semitisms that are compatible with the Hebrew and Aramaic of the right time and place. Then one must eliminate all those that are shared with Greek, that appear frequently in the LXX, and that are found in LXX passages used in liturgy and testimonia. If the nonliterary papyri are used for comparison, one should not eliminate apparent Semitisms found in them which are also found in Coptic, since they may be due to Egyptian interference in the Greek. Poetic and stylistic features should be advanced – if at all – only as ancillary evidence. If possible, and it may well not be, one should distinguish Hebrew Semitisms from Aramaic Semitisms.

Finally, one would need to show mistranslations, mishearing of homonyms, or dual translations in the Greek to establish that we are dealing with Semitic interference from a translated original rather than bilingual interference from the composer’s native language. This approach follows, with some nuancing and development, Maloney’s _Semitic Interference in Marcan Syntax_, the most fully methodologically aware treatment of Semitic interference in a Greek text of which I know. If a cumulative case for a high density of Semitisms remains after such an analysis, the probability that the work was translated from Hebrew or Aramaic would be very high.
....
Meanwhile, even applying Martin’s criteria in a thoroughgoing way to texts in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha would be a significant step forward. Martin has done so with the first five chapters of _1 Maccabees_ and the high level of correspondence of its Greek to the Semitic features makes a persuasive case that it was composed in Hebrew or Aramaic.[13]
13: Martin, _Syntax Criticism_, 142, 168-70, 189-91.
Reply
#65
I often use https://biblehub.com and sometimes https://www.biblegateway.com
The NT was originally in Aramaic. To look at that, I use
the Peshitta tool at http://dukhrana.com and
https://aramaicdb.lightofword.org/en/new...ons-search
Reply
#66
google translate + light editing, hopefully without changing the meaning

Méhat André, book review in _Revue de l'histoire des religions_ [_Review of the history of religions_], vol 209, number 3 (1992), 304-308
https://www.persee.fr/doc/rhr_0035-1423_...209_3_2402

Raymond A. Martin, _Syntax Criticism of the Synoptic Gospels_, Lewiston (New York) / Queenstone (Ontario), The Edwin Mellen Press, 1987, 219 p. ("Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity", 10), £69.95.
Id., _Syntax Criticism of Johannine Literature. The Catholic Epistle and the Gospel Passion Accounts_, Lewiston/ Lampeter/ Queenstone, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1989, 185 p. ("Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity", 18), $59.95.

Raymond A. Martin currently teaches at Wartburg Seminary, in Dubuque (Iowa). It is an astonishing fact that the small audience obtained so far by his work on the Semitic substratum of the New Testament. In his last two books, he refers to his earlier publications, of which he summarizes the content. One of the oldest and more accessible was an article from 1964 providing "the syntactic proof of Semitic sources in Act I-XV": ^1 [1: R.A. Martin, "Syntactical Evidence of Aramaic Sources in Acts I-XV"] which had been taken and developed in a small book in 1974^2 [2: R.A. Martin, _Syntactical Evidence of Semitic Sources in Greek Documents_, Scholars' Press Cambridge (Mass.), 1974].

Unlike most authors who had studied one by one the Semitisms of the New Testament, he used a statistical method which is surprising afterwards that it had not been tried before him. He was looking for the frequency of a certain number of facts of language, on the one hand in Greek writers a priori devoid of Semitic influence such as Plutarch or Polybius, and on the other hand in Greek texts translated from Hebrew or Aramaic, mainly the translations of the Septuagint. He thus released criteria from the "original Greek" on the one hand, and from the "Greek of translation" on the other, independent of any literary, historical or doctrinal consideration. In 1974 he identified 17 criteria which, applied to the Acts of the Apostles, had made it possible to establish a clear difference between a first part (chap. I to XV, and not I to XII) and a second, written in "original Greek". The first part presents case frequencies closer to the "Greek of translation", an increase of more than 50% compared to the second, which places it halfway between the pure "original Greek" and the pure "translation Greek". It is enough to rule out the reasons generally advanced to explain the Semitisms of the New Testament: the bilingualism of an author, which is certainly the same in two parts, or the imitation, conscious or unconscious, of the style of the Septuagint which would have produced the same effect in both cases.

The most plausible hypothesis is that the author follows in its first part one or more Semitic sources, which he freely paraphrases (assumption that R.A.M. moves away a little quickly [easily disposes of? doesn't address well? -df]) or that he uses irregularly (_erratic_). Based on the number of verified criteria, the author thought he could isolate 16 unites (_units_) of the first part having, certainly or probably, Semitic sources. Once again, we are surprised that the commentators on Acts have so far ignored these results, even though by chance they cite R.A.M. in their bibliographies.

After a long interval, the author applies the same method to the Synoptic Gospels (1987), then to the Johannine Gospel and to various New Testament writings (1989). Overall the results are quite close to what had been established for the first part of Acts: the frequencies are intermediate between those of translations and those of writings written directly in Greek.

The Gospel of Mark is therefore not, as one might have thought, a pure and simple translation. However, some pericopes have frequencies close to the "original Greek", at home and in the parallel passages of Matthew or Luke (the episode of the Gerasene demoniac, the first multiplication of the loaves, the call of the rich, etc.).

Others have frequencies close to "translation Greek"; the call of the first disciples (Mk 1, 16-20 par.), healing of a paralytic (Mk 2, 1-11 par.), accusation of operating by Beelzeboul (Mk 3, 20-30 par.) certain parables (Mk 4, 13-32), resurrection of the daughter of Jairus (Mk 5, 24-43 par.), second multiplication of the loaves (Mk 8, 1-10 par.), dispute over who is the greatest (Mk 9, 33-37 par.). The other units mostly show intermediate frequencies. These are important facts for history and interpretation of texts.

Adopting the hypothesis of the two sources, the author compares according to the same method the synoptic gospels between them. He gets the following results ("Syntax Criticism of the Synoptic Gospels"; p. 127-128):
a) Luke and Matthew attenuate the Semitic characteristics of parallel Markan accounts;
b) Luke and Matthew are more Semitic in the "Q" sections;
c) In its own sections, Luke is much more Semitic than all the rest of the Gospels.

In a new book, R.A.M. analyzes the Fourth Gospel, the four accounts of the Passion and the Resurrection, and the "catholic" epistles. On the Johannine Gospel, his conclusion (p. 80) joins that already formulated by C.F. Burney (_The Aramaic Origin of the Fourth Gospel_, 1922) : the Gospel of John in its present form dates back to a gospel written in Aramaic. It contains units written in "original Greek". But most are close to the "Greek of translation", some very close, for example the speeches after the Last Supper (chap. 14 to 17), but not the discourse on the Bread of Life (chap. 6). Analyses of the stories of the Passion and the Resurrection draw similar conclusions. Wherever the Fourth Gospel is distinguished from the other three, "it is very Semitic according to the syntactic criteria; the Palestinian Aramaic-speaking environment is very apparent". As for the _Epistles of John_, the first two relate to translation Greek, the third from the original Greek. The _Letter of James_, with the exception of a few small "units" (interpolations?) are from Greek for translation; _I Peter_ as a whole belongs clearly in Greek originally, but three sections are in Greek from translation ; _II Peter_ is in Greek originally, but presents a particular style; the whole of _The Epistle of Jude_ is in Greek originally.

These data should in the future be taken into account by all works relating to the New Testament. However criticisms have been made, which R.A.M, does not entirely reject, insofar as they delimit the field on which the syntactic criticism can be exercised. We could add others, for example concerning the presentation: an enormous place is held by tables crammed with numbers, the off-putting character of which can have discouraged more than one reader; too rarely does the author isolate the significant facts to determine their significance. We can also blame him for the deficiencies of its bibliography. Only the 1989 book contains a summary and very incomplete bibliography. It only contains titles of works written or translated into English. The author seems to ignore for example the work of J. Jeremias on the Semitic background of the New Testament, and the little book by J. Carmignac, _Naissance des Evangiles synoptiques_ [_Birth of the Synoptic Gospels_] (Paris, 1984) and its precious notes method.

The very rigor of R.A.M.'s approach could have done it wrong. It would be a reverse error to consider it infallible. The author is the first to mark the limits of his method. (Cf. p. 163-181 of _S.C. of Joh. Lit._: "The Methodology of 'Syntax Criticism' and Criticisms of it"). We will note two here:

1 The statistical method is only fully valid for large numbers. The more short the sections, the more uncertain the results. With the shortest units (up to 4 lines!), we practically come back to ad hoc observations. The author overcomes the difficulty by making the count of the criteria verified among the 17 it uses. This would assume that they are independent of each other and of equal value. But the first eight for example (use of prepositions) are linked between them. And the proportion of the bonds in καί and in δέ is a fact of language that a good translator can be wary of: he can easily correct the effects, or on the contrary use them systematically to "Do Semitic". On the other hand, the number of criteria is not limited ; we could add others.

2 The existence of Semitic sources is not necessarily detected by the "syntactic criticism". The discernment that it operates is exercised only in a meaning. The Semitisms preserved in Greek prove the existence of a Semitic substrate. But their absence or their rarity is not incompatible with the use of an underlying Hebrew or Aramaic text. An example is given by R.A.M. himself: Flavius Josephus declares that he first wrote the _War of the Jews_ in "the language of his fathers"; however, according to the syntactic analysis, the work presents all the characteristics of "original Greek". It could be the same with certain evangelical pericopes, and that, without reaching the perfection of Flavius Josephus and his collaborators, good translators considerably attenuated the Semitic features from their sources.

Either way, the R.A.M. counts establish as hardly contestable the existence of Semitic sources in the bulk of the Gospels and the first half of Acts. That is to say that these writings take us back to Palestinian origins, and therefore older than is usually admitted. A revision is needed of theories which exaggerate the Hellenic part in Christian origins. Is it because they force this revision that R.A.M.'s work has been given so little consideration so far? After his last two books, it is no longer possible to ignore them.

Finally, let us point out that his books and his method can make great service to all who have to deal with writings suspected to be translations of foreign texts, or recognized as such.
André Méhat.

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_Mark as Contributive Amanuensis of 1 Peter?_ by Jongyoon Moon
https://books.google.com/books?id=WPtf9D...pg=PA82&dq="Greek+style+of+the+parallel+narratives+of+the+passion+and+resurrection+in+the+four+Gospels.+"
I got what's below from a PDF that's from a version of that book, and I reformatted the table:

In his 1989 monograph, _Syntax Criticism of Johannine Literature, the Catholic Epistles, and the Gospel Passion Accounts_, [Raymond A.] Martin analyzes the Greek style of the parallel narratives of the passion and resurrection in the four Gospels. He defines the accounts of the passion and resurrection as Mark 11:1-16:8, Matt 21:1-28:20, Luke 19:28-24:53, and John 12:1-21:25, respectively.

Figure 11. Net Frequencies in Original Greek Documents of More Than 50 Lines

No. of Lines
Original Greek 17 16 15 11 10 9 4
Translation Greek -3 -4 -7
325 Plutarch – Selections 16
192 Polybius – Bks I, II 15
138 Epictetus – Bks III, IV 17
349 Bks I, II 9
487 Bks I, II, III, IV 11
215 Josephus – Selections 16
630 Papyri – Selections 17
495 II Maccabees 2:13-6:31 17
251 Philo – On Creation I-VIII 9
447 Mark 11:1-16:8 4
718 Matt 21:1-28:20 -4
524 Luke 19:28-24:53 -7
732 John 12-21 -3

(Source: Martin, _Syntax Criticism of Johannine Literature, the Catholic Epistles, and the Gospel Passion Accounts_, 44 with modifications)
On the grounds of his syntactical analysis, Martin indicates that “somewhat surprising is the fact that the net frequencies of both Matthew’s and Luke’s accounts are much more Semitic, falling into clearly translation Greek area!”^3 [3: Ibid., 45. ....]

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"(How) Can We Tell If a Greek Apocryphon or Pseudepigraphon Has Been Translated from Hebrew or Aramaic?" by James R. Davila
https://otp.wp.st-andrews.ac.uk/abstract...r-aramaic/
[endnote] 4. _Syntactical Evidence of Semitic Sources in Greek Documents_ (Cambridge, Mass.: Society of Biblical Literature, 1974); idem, _Syntax Criticism of the Synoptic Gospels_ (Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity 10; Lewiston, New York/Queenston, Ontario: Edwin Mellen, 1987).
The criteria are presented in detail in chapter 1 of _Syntatical Evidence_ on pp. 5-43 and are, briefly,
the relative frequency of eight prepositions in relationship to the preposition en;
the comparative frequencies of _kai_ and _de_ in coordinating independent clauses;
the separation of the Greek definite article from its substantive;
a tendency to place genitives after the substantive on which they depend;
a greater frequency of dependent genitive personal pronouns;
a tendency to omit the article on a substantive with a dependent genitive personal pronoun;
a tendency to place attributive adjectives after the word they qualify;
less frequent use of attributive adjectives;
less frequent use of adverbial participles;
and less frequent use of the dative case without a preposition.

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_Classifying the Aramaic Texts from Qumran: A Statistical Analysis of Linguistic Features_ (Library of Second Temple Studies) by John Starr (2017), 350pp., on 303-305
https://www.amazon.com/dp/0567683133?
In particular, the four texts that contained excerpts from the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra clustered together quite separate from the other texts. .... It was during this stage, also using cluster analysis, that a further discreet group of texts were identified that had features in common with the Targums. .... For the Aramaic texts found at Qumran, Latent Class Analysis confirmed that there were six quite distinct text-type groups (not five or seven) and that they described relationships between the texts well. ....

Formal statistical analysis showed that nearly all the remaining unclassified texts could be assigned to a text-type group with over 90 per cent probability. The pattern of six distinct text types explaining the relationship between the Aramaic texts found at Qumran held up remarkably. ....

There were three main textual aspects of this characterization: date (early, mid, late), place (Eastern or Western) and literary style ('typical' or not). ....
First, there are six distinct text types present in diverse styles both in terms of date and geographical affinity so that it is no longer possible to speak of 'Qumran Aramaic' without considerable qualification. Second, texts can be classified according to whether they display an 'official', mainstream style, with proportionally fewer 'unofficial' style texts coming from Cave 4. This raises the real possibility that Cave 4 texts form a distinct entity or library.
Reply
#67
When Rev 20:1 was originally written, do you think it had:
"an angel"?
"another angel"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:1
Berean Literal Bible
And I saw an angel descending out of heaven, holding in his hand the key of the Abyss, and a great chain.
King James Bible
And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.
Literal Standard Version
And I saw a messenger coming down out of Heaven, having the key of the abyss, and a great chain over his hand,
World English Bible
I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I saw another Angel from Heaven who had with him the key of The Abyss and a great chain in his hand.

Revelation 20:1 - And I saw one another angel come down from the sky to the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand had.
Another - this word encounter we only at at the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. In reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR missing this word.

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When Rev 20:2 was originally written, do you think it had:
"Satan, who deceives the whole earth, and bound him"?
"Satan, and bound him"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:2
Berean Literal Bible
And he seized the dragon, the ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years.
King James Bible
And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years,
Literal Standard Version
and he laid hold on the dragon, the ancient serpent, who is [the] Devil and Satan, and bound him one thousand years,
World English Bible
He seized the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth, and bound him for a thousand years,
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he seized The Dragon and The Ancient Serpent, which is The Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years;

Revelation 20:2 - He seized the dragon, the ancient serpent, which is the devil and the Satan, and bound him for a thousand years fixed,
the Satan - only in the reading of the Greek MHT follows below have the following text: 'the whole of the earth seduces.'

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When Rev 20:3 was originally written, do you think it had:
"until the thousand years were finished; after these things"?
"after these things"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"after these things it is necessary for him to be released"?
"after these things it is granted to release him"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:3
Berean Literal Bible
And he cast him into the Abyss, and shut and sealed it over him, so that he should not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were completed. After these things it is necessary for him to be released for a little time.
King James Bible
And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season.
Literal Standard Version
and he cast him into the abyss, and shut him up, and put a seal on him, that he may no longer lead the nations astray, until the one thousand years may be completed; and after these it is necessary for him to be loosed a short time.
World English Bible
and cast him into the abyss, and shut it, and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were finished. After this, he must be freed for a short time.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he cast him into The Abyss and shut and sealed the top of it so that he would not again seduce all the nations; after these things it is granted to release him for a little season.

Rev 20:3 (based on Glaser)
And casting him/it in abysses/pits and closes/seizes and seals atop him/it, that not again/repent will burden/deceive all of them-- peoples/nations. After these, given to be releasing him/it a little time/exchange.

Revelation 20:3 - and threw him into the abyss and locked and sealed to top him, that he the nations not again would mislead. Thereafter, will he (yet) for a short time, releasing be.
deceive - only in the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR follow below are these words: "until the thousand years were ended', but these are not in the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta.
After that he will ... - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'After that he must ...'

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When Rev 20:4 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the souls of them that were beheaded"?
"these souls who were cut off" as in killed, not necessarily via beheading? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:4
King James Bible
And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.
Literal Standard Version
And I saw thrones, and they [that] sat on them, and judgment was given to them, and the souls of those who have been beheaded because of the testimony of Jesus, and because of the word of God, and who did not worship the beast, nor his image, and did not receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand, and they lived and reigned with the Christ one thousand years;
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I saw seats, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given to them, and these souls who were cut off for the testimony of Yeshua and for the word of God, and because they did not worship The Beast, neither its Image, nor received a mark between their eyes or on their hands, they lived and reigned with The Messiah for 1000 years;

Rev 20:4 (APNT)
https://aramaicdb.lightofword.org/en/new...ons-search
And I saw seats and they sat on them and judgment was given to them. And [I saw] the souls, those who were cut off because of the testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God and those who did not worship the creature nor his image, neither received the mark on their foreheads or on their hands, that they lived and reigned with the Messiah [for] one thousand years.

Rev 20:4 (based on Glaser)
And I saw seat/habitation/place, and they sit upon them and judgment was given to them, and these souls/lives that were cut-off because of witness/martyrdom of Yeshua and because of the word of God and of those that not worship/honor the creature/living-being and not her/its image/idol/stone and not they take/receive inscription/mark upon between their eyes or upon their hands, they lived and they are reigning/counseling with the Messiah 1000 years.

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When Rev 20:5 was originally written, do you think it had "the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished"? (the Crawford ms. doesn't have such)

Revelation 20:5
Berean Literal Bible
The rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years shall have been completed.
This is the first resurrection.
King James Bible
But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished.
This is the first resurrection.
World English Bible
The rest of the dead didn't live until the thousand years were finished.
This is the first resurrection.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And this is the first resurrection.

Revelation 20:5 - This is the first resurrection.
This is the first resurrection - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. In the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR goes here have the following phrase in advance: "The other dead were not again alive before the thousand years finished."

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When Rev 20:7 was originally written, do you think it had:
"And after the thousand years, Satan"?
"And when the thousand years are completed, Satan"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:7
Berean Literal Bible
And when the thousand years shall have been completed, Satan will be released out of his prison,
King James Bible
And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,
Literal Standard Version
And when the one thousand years may be completed, Satan will be loosed out of his prison,
World English Bible
And after the thousand years, Satan will be released from his prison,
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And whenever the 1000 years are finished, Satan will be released from his imprisonment,

Revelation 20:7 - When the thousand years are completed, the Satan will be released from his prison,
When the thousand years completed are - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and TR, but the reading of the Greek MHT reads: "And after the thousand years ..."

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When Rev 20:9 was originally written, do you think it had:
"fire came down out of heaven and devoured them"?
"fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:9
Berean Literal Bible
And they marched up over the breadth of the earth and encircled the camp of the saints and the city having been beloved. But fire came down out of heaven and devoured them.
King James Bible
And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.
Literal Standard Version
and they went up over the breadth of the land, and surrounded the camp of the holy ones, and the beloved city, and there came down fire from God out of Heaven, and devoured them;
World English Bible
They went up over the breadth of the earth, and surrounded the camp of the saints, and the beloved city. Fire came down out of heaven from God, and devoured them.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And they went to war upon an open place of The Earth and surrounded the city of the camp of The Holy People and of The Beloved City, and fire descended from Heaven from God and consumed them.

Revelation 20:9 - They came up on the breadth of the earth and surrounded the city from the camp of the saints and the beloved city, and there fell fire down from the sky, from (to) God, and it devoured them.
of [(at)] GOD - these words are we in the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek MHT, the TR, but the words are missing in the reading of the Greek NA28.

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When Rev 20:12 was originally written, do you think it had:
"standing before God"?
"standing before the throne"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"and they opened scrolls"?
"and scrolls were opened"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"another scroll was opened, which is that of the life"?
"another scroll was opened, which is of The Judgment"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:12
Berean Literal Bible
And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is the one of life. And the dead were judged out of the things having been written in the books, according to their deeds.
King James Bible
And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.
Literal Standard Version
and I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and scrolls were opened, and another scroll was opened, which is that of the life, and the dead were judged out of the things written in the scrolls-according to their works;
World English Bible
I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and they opened books. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I saw the dead, great and small, who stood before the throne, and scrolls were opened, and another scroll was opened, which is of The Judgment, and the dead were judged from those things that were written in the scrolls, according to their works.

Revelation 20:12 - I saw the dead, the small and the great, for the throne stand, and the scrolls were opened, and the other scroll was opened, the (scroll) of the Judgment. And the dead were judged on the basis of some of the books written stood to their work.
before the throne - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek MHT and NA28. Only from the Greek TR reads the reading: "for God."
were opened - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and TR. Only the reading of the Greek MHT reads: 'they opened'.
of the Judgment - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. All Greek sources, the NA28, MHT and TR, have as reading: "The (Book) of the Life '.

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When Rev 20:13 was originally written, do you think it had:
"and they were judged, each one according to their works"?
"and they were judged, one by one, according to their works"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:13
Berean Literal Bible
And the sea gave up the dead who were in it; and death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them; and each of them were judged according to their works.
King James Bible
And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.
Literal Standard Version
and the sea gave up those dead in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead in them, and they were judged, each one according to their works;
World English Bible
The sea gave up the dead who were in it. Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them. They were judged, each one according to his works.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the Sea yielded the dead which were in it, and Death and Sheol yielded the dead which were with them, and they were judged, one by one, according to their works.

Revelation 20:13 - And the sea gave up the dead that were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and they were judged one by one according to their works.
they were judged one by one according to their works - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "they were judged each according to his works."

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When Rev 20:14 was originally written, do you think it had:
"cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire"?
"cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 20:14
Berean Literal Bible
And death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.
King James Bible
And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.
Literal Standard Version
and death and Hades were cast into the lake of the fire-this [is] the second death;
World English Bible
Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And Death and Sheol were cast into The Lake of Fire- this which is the second death.

Revelation 20:14 - The death and the grave were in the lake of fire cast. This is the second death.
This is the second death - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek MHT and TR. In the Greek NA28 follows below again: "(it is), the lake of fire."
Reply
#68
_A Theologico-Political Treatise_ by Benedict de Spinoza (1883), Chapter VII.--Of the Interpretation of Scripture
https://www.sacred-texts.com/phi/spinoza.../tpt11.htm
(25) Now all the writers both of the Old Testament and the New were Hebrews: therefore, a knowledge of the Hebrew language is before all things necessary, not only for the comprehension of the Old Testament, which was written in that tongue, but also of the New: for although the latter was published in other languages, yet its characteristics are Hebrew.

Latin original:
_Tractatus theologico-politicus_ by Benedictus de Spinoza, Caput VII De interpretatione Scripturae
http://spinozaetnous.org/wiki/Tractatus_.../Caput_VII
Et quia omnes tam Veteris, quam Novi Testamenti scriptores hebraei fuerunt, certum est, Historiam linguae hebraicae prae omnibus necessariam esse, non tantum ad intelligentiam librorum Veteris Testamenti, qui hac lingua scripti sunt, sed etiam Novi ; nam quamvis aliis linguis vulgati fuerint, hebraizant tamen.

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"The 'Aramaic New Testament' texts, are maybe suppose to exist, but there is none to show"
Not even Khabouris? Not even the Crawford Revelation?
http://dukhrana.com

"the NT very frequently translate the meaning so that the Greek reader understand the Aramaic concept"
Indeed. The Greek mss. have several instances of such glosses, e.g. 'Messiah means Anointed,' and 'Rabbi means Teacher.' The original Aramaic lacks those glosses.

"the Dead Sea Scrolls, yes indeed, they coincide in great extent with the LXX"
Hence, whenever an NT quote has wording similar to the LXX, we can't conclude that the quote came from the LXX, because it might have instead come from the textual stream seen in Qumram Cave 4.
Reply
#69
When Rev 21:2 was originally written, do you think it had:
"And I John saw"?
"And I saw"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:2
Berean Literal Bible
And I saw the holy city, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, having been prepared as a bride having been adorned for her husband.
King James Bible
And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.
Literal Standard Version
and I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of Heaven, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband;
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I saw The Holy City, New Jerusalem, descending from Heaven from beside God, prepared like a bride adorned for her husband.

Revelation 21:2 - I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from heaven from GOD, arrayed as a bride adorned for her husband.
I saw - only the reading of the Greek TR is different, namely: 'I, John, saw ...'

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When Rev 21:3 was originally written, do you think it had:
"voice out of the throne"?
"voice out of heaven"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"God himself will be among them"?
"God himself will be with them, and be their God"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:3
American Standard Version
And I heard a great voice out of the throne saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he shall dwell with them, and they shall be his peoples, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God:
King James Bible
And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.
Literal Standard Version
and I heard a great voice out of Heaven, saying, "Behold, the dwelling place of God [is] with men, and He will dwell with them, and they will be His peoples, and God Himself will be with them [as] their God,
NASB 1995
And I heard a loud voice from the throne, saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and He will dwell among them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself will be among them,
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I heard a great voice from Heaven that said, "Behold, the Tabernacle of God is with the children of men, and he dwells with them and they shall be his people and the same God is with them and shall be their God.

Revelation 21:3 - And I heard a loud voice from heaven say, “Behold, the Tent of GOD is with men, and He will dwell with them. They will be his people and GOD Himself will be with them, and be their GOD.
from heaven - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek MHT and TR. The reading of the Greek NA28 reads: 'from the throne'.
They will be ... their GOD - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of.... The reading of... reads: "They shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them."

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When Rev 21:4 was originally written, do you think it had:
"God will"?
"he will"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"for the former things are passed away"?
"for His sake"/ "through Him"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:4
Berean Literal Bible
And He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death will be no more nor mourning nor crying nor pain; they will be no more, because the former things have passed away."
King James Bible
And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.
Literal Standard Version
and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and there will be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying, nor will there be anymore pain, because the first things passed away."
World English Bible
He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more. The first things have passed away."
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he shall wipe away every tear from their eyes, and from now on there shall not be death, neither grieving, nor clamor, neither shall there be disease again, for His sake.

Rev 21:4 (APNT)
And he will wipe all tears from their eyes and there will no longer be death, neither sorrow, nor crying, nor will there be any more pain on account of him,"

Rev 21:4 (based on Glaser)
And he will wipe away all/any tears from their eyes, and death/poison/oath not will be thereforward, and not mourning/sorrow and not crying/uproar/clamoring and not pain/suffering/sickness again/return will be upon His/its faces.

Rev 21:4-5 (APNT)
And he will wipe all tears from their eyes and there will no longer be death, neither sorrow, nor crying, nor will there be any more pain on account of him," and it went away.
And he who sat on the throne said to me, "Behold, I am making all [things] new."
And he said to me, "Write. These words are faithful and true."

Revelation 21:4 - He will wipe all tears from their eyes, and there will be no more death, and no more sorrow, or lamentation, or sickness, through Him.”
He will ... - this is the reading of the Greek NA28 and TR. Only in the Greek MHT do we find the reading: 'And GOD, ...'.
by Him - this text occurs only in the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "for the first things have passed away."

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When Rev 21:5 was originally written, do you think it had:
"said, ... said, Write"?
"said, ... said to me, Write"?
"said to me, ... said to me, Write"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"Write, for these words of God are"?
"Write: for these words are"?
"Write: 'These words are'"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"true and faithful"?
"faithful and true"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:5
Berean Literal Bible
And the One sitting on the throne said, "Behold, I make all things new." And He says, "Write this, because these words are faithful and true."
King James Bible
And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.
Literal Standard Version
And He who is sitting on the throne said, "Behold, I make all things new"; and He says to me, "Write, because these words are true and steadfast";
World English Bible
He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." He said, "Write, for these words of God are faithful and true."

Rev 21:4-5 (APNT)
And he will wipe all tears from their eyes and there will no longer be death, neither sorrow, nor crying, nor will there be any more pain on account of him," and it went away.
And he who sat on the throne said to me, "Behold, I am making all [things] new."
And he said to me, "Write. These words are faithful and true."

Rev 21 (based on Glaser)
and I go/went. 21.5 And he sitting upon the throne says to me, "Behold, I work all/any new." And [he] says to me, "Write these words: faithful and truthful having them."

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When Rev 21:6 was originally written, do you think it had:
"I am the Alpha and the O[mega]"?
"I am Alap and I am Tau"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"the beginning and the end"?
"the Source/First/First-Fruits/Beginning/Head/Highest-Part and the Completion/Fulfillment/Consummation/Perfection/End/Fullness"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:6
Berean Literal Bible
And He said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the one thirsting I will give of the spring of the water of life freely.
King James Bible
And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.
Literal Standard Version
and He said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To him who is thirsting, I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely.
World English Bible
He said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give freely to him who is thirsty from the spring of the water of life.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he said to me, "They are done. I am Alap and I am Tau, The Source and The Fulfillment. I shall give to the thirsty one from the fountain of the water of life without charge."

Rev 21:6 (APNT)
And he said to me, "I am Aleph and I am Tau, the beginning and the completion. To the thirsty, I will give from the fountain of living water, freely.

Rev 21:6 (based on Glaser)
And says to me, "I being Aleph and I Tav, the First/Beginning and the Completion, to he thirsting I give from the eye/fountain of living water freely.

r-y-sh-y-th-a
http://dukhrana.com/lexicon/word.php?adr...ize=125%25
1 beginning Syr. (a).... from the beginning, at first, originally Syr. Addai.27.17 . WisSol14:6....
2 (often pl.) first-fruits; Heb. תְּרוּמָה‏ JLAtg, Syr. TgO Num18:12.... P Ezra8:25.... P 2Ch31:10.... these first fruits are permitted for you to eat. Heb 7:4....
3 head, top of the head Syr. P Ez1:17.... IshEz 49(8).... by reshita he refers to the human countenance that each of the beasts had.
4 highest part Syr. JSBhom 61:286.... I saw You sitting like a judge on the very top of the highest realms. (a) main part Syr.

sh-u-l-m-a
http://dukhrana.com/lexicon/word.php?adr...ize=125%25
1 perfection Syr. Cyr2 78:31 .
2 end Syr. P StDan(1)9:25.... IPet3:8.... finally. (a) the End time Syr. StatNis.71.11.... We wish that this remembrance of our writings shall be preserved in the community of our school until the End... (b) of a season Syr. Dalyatha 26:2.... the end of winter [=JDalBeulay 134:10].
3 fullness Syr. Gal4:4....

Galatians 4:4
Berean Literal Bible
But when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, having been born of a woman, having been born under the Law,
New King James Version
But when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the law,

Revelation 21:6 - He said to me, “It has happened. I am the Alef and the Tav, the Beginning and the Consummation. I will give to the thirsty for nothing (to drink), from the fountain of the Water of Life.
It has happened - literally: 'They are done', according to the reading of the Aramean Peshitta.
the Alef and the Tav - instead of this first and last letter of the Aramaic alphabet which are part of the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta of this verse, we read in the Greek NA28, MHT and TR: 'the Alpha and the Omega' [actually, merely the letter Omega-- not the word], which are the first and last letter of the Greek alphabet.
the Beginning and the Consummation - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'the Beginning and the End'.
for nothing - more literally: 'without compensation' (Aramaic), 'as a gift' (Greek).

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When Rev 21:7 was originally written, do you think it had:
"all things"?
"these things"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"overcomes, I will give him"?
"overcomes will inherit"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:7
Berean Literal Bible
The one overcoming will inherit all things, and I will be his God, and he will be My son.
King James Bible
He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.
Literal Standard Version
The [one] who is overcoming will inherit all things, and I will be his God, and he will be My son.
World English Bible
He who overcomes, I will give him these things. I will be his God, and he will be my son.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"And he who is victorious shall inherit these things, and I shall be his God and he will be my son."

Revelation 21:7 - He who overcomes shall inherit these things. I will be his GOD, and he will be my son.
these things - this is the reading of the Greek NA28 and MHT and of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek TR is "all these things."
will inherit ... - this is the reading of the Greek NA28 and TR and of the Aramean Peshitta. The reading of the Greek MHT reads: "I will give him these things."

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When Rev 21:8 was originally written, do you think it had:
"unbelieving and the abominable and murderers"?
"unbelieving and the evil and the defiled and murderers"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:8
Berean Literal Bible
But to the cowardly and unbelieving and having become abominable and murderers and the sexually immoral and sorcerers and idolaters and all liars, their portion is in the lake burning with fire and brimstone, which is the second death."
King James Bible
But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.
Literal Standard Version
But to fearful, and unsteadfast, and abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all the liars, their part [is] in the lake that is burning with fire and brimstone, which is the second death."
World English Bible
But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death."
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"But to the timid, the unbelievers, the evil, the defiled, murderers, sorcerers, fornicators, idol worshipers and all liars: their part is in the burning Lake of Fire and Brimstone, which is the second death."

Rev 21:8 (APNT)
But for the fearful and the unbelieving and the wicked and the defiled and murderers and sorcerers and fornicators and idolaters and all liars, their portion [will be] in the lake burning with fire and sulfur, which is the second death."

Rev 21:8 (based on Glaser)
But/and to the fearful/secure and not trusting and wicked/lawless and polluters/defiled/corrupted and murderers/killers and sorcerers/enchanters and fornicators/whores and idolatrous workers and all of them liars, their portion in the Lake burning of fire/mirror and sulfur/brimstone that of having it second/dragon
death.

Revelation 21:8 - But the doubters, the disbelievers, the wicked, the unclean, the murderers, the sorcerers, the fornicators, the idolaters, and all the liars, their portion is in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death."
the unclean ones - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. This text does not appear in the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR.

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When Rev 21:9 was originally written, do you think it had:
"And one of the seven angels came to me... and spoke with me, saying"?
"And one of the seven angels... came and spoke with me, saying"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:9
Berean Literal Bible
And one of the seven angels having the seven bowls being full of the seven last plagues came and spoke with me, saying, "Come here, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb."
King James Bible
And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife.
Literal Standard Version
And one of the seven messengers, having the seven bowls that are full of the seven last plagues, came and spoke with me, saying, "Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb,"
World English Bible
One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls, who were loaded with the seven last plagues came, and he spoke with me, saying, "Come here. I will show you the wife, the Lamb's bride."
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And one of the seven Angels who had with them the seven vessels full of the seven last plagues, came and he spoke with me saying, "Come; I shall show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb."

Revelation 21:9 - One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues came and spoke to me, saying, “Come, I will show you the Bride, the Lamb's wife. ”
came - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and MHT. Only the reading of the Greek TR reads: "came to me" or "came to me."

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When Rev 21:10 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the great city, the holy Jerusalem"?
"the holy city, Jerusalem"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:10
Berean Literal Bible
And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and he showed me the holy city Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
King James Bible
And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
Literal Standard Version
and he carried me away in the Spirit to a mountain great and high, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, coming down out of Heaven from God,
World English Bible
He carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God,
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he carried me in The Spirit to a great and high mountain and he showed me The Holy City Jerusalem, coming down from Heaven from the presence of God,

Revelation 21:10 - He led me in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, coming down from heaven from GOD,
the holy city, Jerusalem - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and MHT. The reading of the Greek TR reads: 'the great city, (the) holy Jerusalem'.

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When Rev 21:11 was originally written, do you think it had:
"like jasper, clear as crystal"?
"like jasper, as the appearance of crystal"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:11
Berean Literal Bible
having the glory of God. Its radiance was like a most precious stone, like a jasper stone being clear as crystal,
King James Bible
Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal;
Literal Standard Version
having the glory of God, and her light-like a most precious stone, as a jasper stone clear as crystal,
World English Bible
having the glory of God. Her light was like a most precious stone, as if it was a jasper stone, clear as crystal;
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And it had the glory of God and its light was as the likeness of precious stones, like Jasper red quartz, as the appearance of crystal.

Rev 21:11 (APNT)
And it had the glory of God and its light [was] like a precious stone such as jasper, like crystal.

Rev 21:11 (based on Glaser)
And having to it/her glory of God and its/her light as of form/likeness of precious/valuable stone like its smoothness as likeness/form to crystal.

Revelation 21:11 - with the glory of GOD, and its light (shined) like the most precious gems, like the jasper that looks like crystal.
like the jasper that looks on crystal - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'like the crystal clear jasper'.

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When Rev 21:12 was originally written, do you think it had:
"which are [those] of the twelve tribes"?
"which are the names of the twelve tribes"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:12
Berean Literal Bible
having a great and high wall, having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names having been inscribed which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel.
King James Bible
And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:
Literal Standard Version
also having a great and high wall, having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve messengers, and names written thereon, which are [those] of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel-
World English Bible
having a great and high wall; having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels; and names written on them, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And it had a wall, great and high, and it had twelve gates, and at the gates, twelve Angels, and names written which are the names of the twelve tribes of Israel;

Revelation 21:12 - It had a great and high wall, with twelve gates, and at the gates (standing) twelve angels, and the names were written on it, the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel.
the names of the twelve tribes - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of.... Only from... is the reading: 'of the twelve tribes', so without 'the names'.

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When Rev 21:14 was originally written, do you think it had:
"twelve... twelve... twelve"?
"twelve... twelve"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"apostles of the Lamb"?
"apostles of the Son"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:14
Berean Literal Bible
And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
King James Bible
And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
Literal Standard Version
and the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
World English Bible
The wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them twelve names of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the wall of the city has twelve foundations, and on them, the twelve names of the Apostles of The Son.

Revelation 21:14 - The wall of the city had twelve foundations bearing the twelve names of the apostles of the Son.
...in the reading of... the numeral 'twelve' is missing.
apostles of the Son - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'the twelve apostles of the Lamb'. In Aramaic, the spelling of the words 'Lamb' and 'Son' are more similar than the spellings of those words in Greek, especially when the words are rendered in the so-called Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) script. In the latter case, a misreading is a good explanation of the difference between the Aramaic sources and the Greek sources, assuming that the Greek has been translated from Aramaic.

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When Rev 21:15 was originally written, do you think it had:
"reed... to measure"?
"measuring reed... to measure"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"to measure the city, its gates, and its walls"?
"to measure the city and its wall"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:15
Berean Literal Bible
And the one speaking with me had a golden measuring reed, so that he could measure the city, and its gates, and its wall.
King James Bible
And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof.
Literal Standard Version
And he who is speaking with me had a golden reed, that he may measure the city, and its gates, and its wall;
World English Bible
He who spoke with me had for a measure, a golden reed, to measure the city, its gates, and its walls.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he who spoke with me had with him a measuring reed of gold to measure the city and its wall.

Revelation 21:15 - The one who spoke to me had a golden ruler with which to measure the city and its wall.
ruler - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of....
her wall - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. In the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR it follows: 'and its gates'.

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When Rev 21:16 was originally written, do you think it had:
"twelve thousand twelve stadia"?
"twelve thousand stadia"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:16
Berean Literal Bible
And the city lies foursquare, and its length the same as also the width. And he measured the city with the reed at twelve thousand stadia. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.
King James Bible
And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.
Literal Standard Version
and the city lies square, and the length of it is as great as the breadth; and he measured the city with the reed-twelve thousand stadia; the length, and the breadth, and the height of it are equal.
World English Bible
The city lies foursquare, and its length is as great as its breadth. He measured the city with the reed, Twelve thousand twelve stadia. Its length, breadth, and height are equal.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the city was laid out four-sided, and its length like its width. And he measured The City with the reed, with 12,000 stadia its length; its width and its height are equal.

Revelation 21:16 - The city was square. Her length was like her width. He measured the city with the (measuring) bar. Its length was twelve thousand furlongs (about 2200 kilometers). Her width and her height were equal.
twelve thousand furlongs - one stadium ("stadium") was about 187 meters. The text gives the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28, the TR. Only the reading of the Greek MHT reads: "twelve thousand furlongs twelve."

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When Rev 21:17 was originally written, do you think it had:
"Its wall is"?
"And he measured its wall"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:17
Berean Literal Bible
And he measured its wall, one hundred forty-four cubits, the measure of man, that is of the angel.
Literal Standard Version
And he measured its wall-one hundred forty-four cubits, the measure of a man, that is, of the messenger;
World English Bible
Its wall is one hundred forty-four cubits, by the measure of a man, that is, of an angel.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he measured its wall 144 cubits by the measure of a man, that is, of the Angel.

Revelation 21:17 - He measured its wall, one hundred and forty-four cubits, according to the measure of a man, which is the angel's.
He measured - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and TR. The verb is missing in the reading of the Greek MHT.
one hundred and forty four - 144 cubits is about 70 meters. The number 144 takes us back to Op. 7:14, where there is mention of 144,000 sealed: 12 x 12 x 1000. It seems that this "measure of a man" must form a kind of contrast with "the number of a man" in Rev. 13:17 which is closely associated with the beast.

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When Rev 21:19 was originally written, do you think it had:
"with all kinds of precious stones"?
"with precious stones"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"the third, chalcedony"?
"the third, white chalcedony"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:19
Berean Literal Bible
the foundations of the wall of the city having been adorned with every precious stone: the first foundation jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald,
King James Bible
And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;
Literal Standard Version
And the foundations of the wall of the city have been adorned with every precious stone: the first foundation jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald,
World English Bible
The foundations of the city's wall were adorned with all kinds of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald;
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the foundation of the wall of the city is adorned with precious stones; and the first foundation, Jasper red-blue-yellow Quartz, and the second, Sapphire, and the third, white Chalcedony, and the fourth, Emerald,

Rev 21:19 (APNT)
And the foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with precious stones. And the first foundation [was] jasper and the second, sapphire and the third, chalcedony and the fourth, emerald

Rev 21:19 (based on Glaser)
And foundations/bases of wall/fortification of the city adorned in precious/valuable stones
and the first foundation its smoothness and second sapphire and third chalcedony and fourth colored crystal.

Revelation 21:19 - The foundations of the wall of the city were decorated with precious stones. The first foundation was jasper, the second sapphire, the third white chalcedony, the fourth emerald,
with precious stones - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'with all kinds of precious stones'.

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Revelation 21:20 - the fifth sardonyx, the sixth sardius, the seventh goldstone, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh hyacinth, the twelfth amethyst.
the fifth sardonyx - in the Peshitta we read literally: "the fifth sardius and onyx."
the seventh gold stone - in the Aramaic Peshitta we read literally: 'the seventh a stone of gold'. The word 'chrysolite' we find here in the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR. The Greek word 'chrusolithos' (Gr. χρυσολιθος) is formed by 'chrusos' (Gr. χρυσος), 'gold', and 'lithos' (Gr. λιθος), 'stone', which together means 'gold stone'. That's right with Aramaic. Synonyms of 'goldstone' are 'olivine' (Eng. olivine) and 'peridot'. Images of the chrysolite show a warm greenish stone.

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When Rev 21:21 was originally written, do you think it had:
"And the twelve gates [are] twelve pearls"?
"And twelve gates and twelve pearls"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:21
Berean Literal Bible
And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the gates respectively was of one pearl, and the street of the city pure gold, transparent as glass.
King James Bible
And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass.
Literal Standard Version
And the twelve gates [are] twelve pearls, each one of the gates respectively was of one pearl; and the street of the city [is] pure gold-as transparent glass.
World English Bible
The twelve gates were twelve pearls. Each one of the gates was made of one pearl. The street of the city was pure gold, like transparent glass.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And 12 gates and 12 pearls, one to each, and everyone of the gates was of one pearl, but the street of the city of pure gold, as if there was glass in it.

Revelation 21:21 - Twelve gates and twelve pearls, one to one. Each (gate) of it was of one pearl.
But the street of the city was of pure gold, (transparent) as glass.
Twelve gates and twelve pearls - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "The twelve gates were twelve pearls."
[(transparent)] like glass - the Aramaic Peshitta reading literally reads: 'as if there were glass in it'. In the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR the word 'transparent' (G1307) does occur.

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When Rev 21:22 was originally written, do you think it had:
"for the kurios/Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple"?
"for MrYa [Master/Lord YHWH] God Almighty is its temple"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:22
Berean Literal Bible
And I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty is its temple, and the Lamb.
King James Bible
And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.
World English Bible
I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God, the Almighty, and the Lamb, are its temple.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And I saw no Temple in it, for THE LORD JEHOVAH God Almighty, he is its Temple.

Revelation 21:22 - I saw no Temple in her, for the LORD GOD Almighty is her Temple.
her Temple - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR. In the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR it follows: 'and the Lamb'. But in the context of the following verses that addition is less appropriate, for from the context of the various verses we can conclude that the LORD Almighty GOD is the Temple, which is full of his glory, and that the Lamp of that glory is the Lamb....

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When Rev 21:23 was originally written, do you think it had:
"And the city has no need of the sun"?
"And the Lamb and the city do not need the sun"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:23
King James Bible
And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.
Literal Standard Version
And the city has no need of the sun, nor of the moon, that they may shine in it; for the glory of God lightens it, and the lamp of it-the Lamb;
World English Bible
The city has no need for the sun, neither of the moon, to shine, for the very glory of God illuminated it, and its lamp is the Lamb.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And The Lamb and The City do not need the Sun or the Moon to illuminate it, for the glory of God illuminates it, and The Lamb is its lamp.

Revelation 21:23 - For the Lamb and the city need not the sun and the moon to light it up, for the glory of GOD lights it up and the Lamb is its Lamp.
The Lamb and the city have ... - this is the reading of the Aramean Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "And the city has ..."
notes - began Op. 1 with the Lord Jesus Christ who walked as a lampstand among the seven lampstands, now here at the end of the book of Revelation Jesus Christ, as the Lamb of GOD, appears again as the Lamp or the Candlestick, although that is in Greek and also in Aramaic are two different words.

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When Rev 21:24 was originally written, do you think it had:
"And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in"?
"And the nations walk in"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"walk in its light"?
"walk in His light"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"bring the glory and honor of the nations into it"?
"bring their glory and honor into it"?
"bring their glory into it"?
"bring Him glory/praise"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:24
Berean Literal Bible
And the nations will walk by its light,
and the kings of the earth bring their glory into it.
King James Bible
And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it:
and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.
Literal Standard Version
and the nations will walk by its light,
and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it,
World English Bible
The nations will walk in its light.
The kings of the earth bring the glory and honor of the nations into it.

Rev 21:24 (APNT)
And the nations were walking in his light
and the kings of the earth were bringing him praise.

Rev 21:24 (based on Glaser)
And peoples/nations were walking in His light,
and the kings of earth produce/bring/bear to Him praise/glory.

Revelation 21:24 - The nations will walk in her light,
and the kings of the earth will bring glory to her.
The nations - only from the Greek TR the reading is: "the nations of those who are saved."
will bring glory to her - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek MHT reads: 'bring into her the glory and honor of the nations'. The reading of the Greek NA28 reads: 'bring their glory into her'. The Greek TR reading reads: 'bring their glory and honor into her'.

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When Rev 21:26 was originally written, do you think it had "so that they may enter"? (the Crawford mss. lacks such)

Revelation 21:26
Berean Literal Bible
And they will bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it.
King James Bible
And they shall bring the glory and honour of the nations into it.
Literal Standard Version
and they will bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it;
World English Bible
and they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it so that they may enter.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And they shall bring to it the glory and honor of the nations.

Rev 21:26 (APNT)
And they will bring the glory and honor of the nations into it.

Rev 21:26 (based on Glaser)
And-will-be (plural) to Him glory/praise and honor/increase of peoples/nations.

Revelation 21:26 - They will bring the glory and honor of the nations.
.... The Greek MHT adds in its next lecture: "so that they may enter."

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When Rev 21:27 was originally written, do you think it had:
"written in the Lamb's book of life"?
"written in the book of the Lamb"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 21:27
Berean Literal Bible
And anything defiling, and those practicing abomination and a lie, never shall enter into it; only those having been written in the Lamb's book of life.
King James Bible
And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life.
Literal Standard Version
and there may never enter into it anything defiling and doing abomination, and a lie, if not those written in the Lamb's Scroll of Life.
World English Bible
There will in no way enter into it anything profane, or one who causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb's book of life.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
There shall not be anything defiled there, or one who makes defilement or lies, but only those who are written in The Book of the Lamb.

Revelation 21:27 - There shall be nothing unclean in her, no one who commits abominations or acts falsely, but only those who are written in the Book of the Lamb.
Book of the Lamb - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'the Book of the Life of the Lamb'.

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When Rev 22:1 was originally written, do you think it had:
"water of life, clear as crystal"?
"water of life, pure and clear as crystal"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:1
Berean Literal Bible
And he showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, flowing out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.
King James Bible
And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.
Literal Standard Version
And he showed me [the] river of [the] water of life, radiant as crystal, going forth out of the throne of God and of the Lamb
World English Bible
He showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb,
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he showed me a river of the water of life, pure and clear as crystal, and it went out from the throne of God and of the Lamb.

Revelation 22:1 - And he showed me a river of Living Water, pure and clear as crystal, which proceeded from the throne of GOD and of the Lamb.
pure and clear - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR is: 'clear'.

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When Rev 22:2 was originally written, do you think it had:
"yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations"?
"every month it gives its fruits and its leaves for the healing of the nations"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:2
Berean Literal Bible
In the middle of its street and of the river, on this side and on that side, was a tree of life, producing twelve fruits, yielding its fruit according to each month; and the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations.
King James Bible
In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
Literal Standard Version
in the midst of its street, and of the river on this side and on that-[the] Tree of Life, producing twelve fruits, yielding its fruit according to each month, and the leaves of the tree [are] for the healing of the nations;
World English Bible
in the middle of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And in the center of the street on this side and on that, upon the river, The Tree of Life which produces 12 fruits, and every month it gives its fruits and its leaves for the healing of the peoples.

Rev 22:2 (APNT)
And in the middle of its broad streets, on this side and on that side by the river, was the tree of life that produced twelve fruits and in every month gave its fruits. And its leaves [were] for the healing of the nations.

Rev 22:2 (based on Glaser)
And midst/middle/presence its streets/marketplaces here/time/place and here/time/place upon river tree/wood/cross of life that works twelve fruit, and in every month gives its fruit and its leaves to heal of peoples/nations.

Revelation 22:2 - In the middle of the square, on both sides of the river, stood the Tree of Life, which bears fruit twelve (times). Every month he gave its fruits and its leaves for the healing of the nations.
Every month ... of the nations - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "Every month it gives its fruit, and the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations."

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When Rev 22:5 was originally written, do you think it had:
"no night and"?
"no night there and"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"light of a lamp"?
"lamp or light of the sun"?
"light of a lamp... light of the sun"?
"light or lamp or light of the sun"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"Kurios/Lord God gives them light: and they shall reign to the ages of the ages"?
"MrYa [i.e. Master YHWH] gives them light and he is their king to the ages of the ages"?

Revelation 22:5
Berean Literal Bible
And there will be no night there, and they have no need of the light of a lamp and of the light of the sun, because the Lord God will enlighten upon them, and they will reign to the ages of the ages.
King James Bible
And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever.
World English Bible
There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And there shall be no night there and neither will they need lights, lamps, or the light of the Sun, because THE LORD JEHOVAH God gives them light, and he is their King for the eternity of eternities.

Revelation 22:5 - There will be no night there (anymore) and they will need no light or lamp or light from the sun, for the LORD GOD enlightens them and He is their King for ever and ever.
there - this word is part of the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek TR, but it is missing in the reading of the Greek NA28 and MHT.
no light or lamp - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28 is: 'no light from a lamp', while the reading of the Greek MHT and TR is: 'no lamp'.
and He is their King for all eternity - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "and they shall reign as kings for ever and ever."

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When Rev 22:6 was originally written, do you think it had:
"God of the spirits of the prophets"?
"God of the holy prophets"?
"God of the Spirit of the holy prophets"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:6
Berean Literal Bible
And he said to me, "These words are faithful and true. And the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show His servants the things that must come to pass in quickness."
King James Bible
And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly be done.
World English Bible
He said to me, "These words are faithful and true. The Lord God of the spirits of the prophets sent his angel to show to his bondservants the things which must happen soon."
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he said to me, "These words are trustworthy and true, and THE LORD JEHOVAH, God of The Spirit of The Holy Prophets, has sent his Angel to show his Servants what is granted to happen soon."

Revelation 22:6 - (Then) he said to me: “These words are trustworthy and true, and the LORD GOD of the Spirit of the holy prophets has sent his angel to shew his servants what must soon be done.”
the Spirit of the Holy Prophets - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28 and MHT is "the spirits of the prophets," and the reading of the Greek TR is "the holy prophets."

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When Rev 22:13 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End"?
"the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last"?
"the First and the Last, the Beginning and the Consummation"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:13
Berean Literal Bible
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End."
King James Bible
I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
Literal Standard Version
I am the Alpha and the Omega-the Beginning and End-the First and the Last.
World English Bible
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"I am Alap and I am Tau, The First and The Last, The Origin and The Fulfillment."

Revelation 22:13 (based on Glaser)
I A-l-p and I T-u, First and Last and Beginning/Origin and Completion/Deliverance.

Revelation 22:13 - I am the Alef and the Tav, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the Consummation.”
the Alef and the Tav - the first and last letter of the Aramaic alphabet. This is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR is: 'the Alpha and the Omega', the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet.
the First and the Last, the Beginning and the Consummation - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28 and MHT reads: 'the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End'. Only in the reading of the TR is the order reversed: "the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last."

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When Rev 22:14 was originally written, do you think it had:
"Blessed are they that wash their robes"?
"Blessed are those who do his commandments"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:14
Berean Literal Bible
Blessed are those washing their robes, that their right will be to the tree of life, and they shall enter into the city by the gates.
King James Bible
Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.
Literal Standard Version
Blessed are those doing His commands that the authority will be theirs to the Tree of Life, and they may enter into the city by the gates;
World English Bible
Blessed are those who do his commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter in by the gates into the city.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"Blessings to those who are doing his Commandments; their authority shall be over The Tree of Life, and they shall enter The City by the gates."

Revelation 22:14 - “Blessed are they that keep his commandments. They will exercise authority over the Tree of Life and enter the city through the gates.
Blessed are those who do his commandments - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek MHT and TR. Only from the Greek NA28 reads: "Blessed are they that wash their robes."

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When Rev 22:15 was originally written, do you think it concluded with:
"and everyone who loves and practices falsehood."?
"and all seers and workers of lies."? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:15
Berean Literal Bible
Outside are the dogs, and the sorcerers, and the sexually immoral, and the murderers, and the idolaters, and everyone loving and practicing falsehood.
King James Bible
For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.
Literal Standard Version
and outside [are] the dogs, and the sorcerers, and the whoremongers, and the murderers, and the idolaters, and everyone cherishing and doing falsehood.
World English Bible
Outside are the dogs, the sorcerers, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"And outside are fornicators, murderers, idol worshipers, the defiled, sorcerers and all seers and workers of lies."

Revelation 22:15 - Outside are the fornicators, the murderers, the idolaters, the unclean, the sorcerers, and all seers and liars.”
explanation - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: 'Outside are the dogs, the sorcerers, the fornicators, the murderers, the idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices a lie.' The 'unclean' in the Aramaic text are probably 'the dogs' in the Greek text, while the Aramaic word for 'seers' is very similar to the Aramaic word for 'friends', possibly explaining why the reading from Greek (in case it was a translation from Aramaic), reads: 'who loves and does the lie', while Aramaic only reads 'workers of lies', ie 'liars'.

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When Rev 22:16 was originally written, do you think it had:
"offspring of David, and the bright"?
"offspring of David, and his companion, and the bright"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:16
Berean Literal Bible
"I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to all of you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright morning star."
King James Bible
I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.
Literal Standard Version
I, Jesus, sent My messenger to testify to you these things concerning the assemblies; I am the root and the offspring of David, the radiant morning star!
World English Bible
I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify these things to you for the assemblies. I am the root and the offspring of David; the Bright and Morning Star."
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
I, Yeshua, have sent my Angel to testify these things among you before the assemblies. I AM THE LIVING GOD, The Root and The Offspring of David, and his Companion, and The Bright Morning Star."

Revelation 22:16 - “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify these things to you before the churches. I AM the Root and the Descendant of David, and his Companion, the bright Morning Star.”
from David - only the Aramaic Peshitta adds hereinafter: 'and his Companion' or: 'and his Partner'.

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When Rev 22:17 was originally written, do you think it had:
"Come. And let him who thirsts come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely"?
"Come. And let him who thirsts come and take the water of life freely"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:17
Berean Literal Bible
And the Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" And the one hearing, let him say, "Come!" And the one thirsting let him come; the one desiring, let him take freely the water of life.
King James Bible
And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.
Literal Standard Version
And the Spirit and the bride say, Come! And he who is hearing-- let him say, Come! And he who is thirsting-- let him come; and he who is willing-- let him take the water of life freely.
World English Bible
The Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" He who hears, let him say, "Come!" He who is thirsty, let him come. He who desires, let him take the water of life freely.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"And The Spirit and The Bride are saying, 'Come', and let him who hears, say, "Come", and let him who thirsts come and take the water of life without charge."

Revelation 22:17 - The Spirit and the Bride say, "Come!" And let whoever hears it say, “Come!” “Let him who is thirsty come and drink of the living water freely.”
free - i.e. without consideration, without works or remuneration.
free to drink - literally: 'take without compensation'. In the reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR we read before this: 'and let him who will, let him ...'

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When Rev 22:19 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the book of life"?
"the tree of life"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:19
Berean Literal Bible
And if anyone should take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, of those having been written in this book.
King James Bible
And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
Literal Standard Version
and if anyone may take away from the words of the scroll of this prophecy, God will take away his part from the Scroll of Life, and out of the holy city, and the things that have been written in this scroll."
World English Bible
If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, may God take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, which are written in this book.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
"And whoever subtracts from the words of the Scripture of this prophecy, God shall subtract his part from The Tree of Life and from The Holy City, those things which are written in this book."

Revelation 22:19 - If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, GOD will take away his portion from the Tree of Life and from the holy City, which are described in this book.”
the Tree of Life - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28 and MHT. Only from the Greek TR is the reading: 'the Book of Life'.

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When Rev 22:20 was originally written, do you think it had:
"he who testifies these things says, Yes"?
"when he testified these things, he said, Yes"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"says, 'Yes, I come quickly.' Amen. Yes, come"?
"says, 'Yes, I am coming quickly.' Amen. Come"?
"says, 'Yes, I am coming soon.' Come"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:20
Berean Literal Bible
The One testifying these things says, "Yes, I am coming quickly." Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!
King James Bible
He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus.
Literal Standard Version
The [One] testifying [to] these things says, "Yes, I come quickly!" Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!
World English Bible
He who testifies these things says, "Yes, I come quickly." Amen! Yes, come, Lord Jesus.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And when he testified these things, he said, "Yes, I am coming soon." "Come, LORD JEHOVAH Yeshua."

Rev 22:20 (based on Glaser)
[He] says while/when testifying these [things], "A-y-n [yes], a-th-a [come/sign] I quickly/soon." Th-a [Come/sign] MrYa Yeshua.
[MrYa = Master YHWH: 'Mr' is short for 'Maran' which means 'Master/Lord'; 'Ya' is short for Yah as in YHWH]

Revelation 22:20 - When He testified of these things, He said, "Yes, I am coming soon!" “Come, Lord Jesus!”
When He ... testified, He said - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek NA28, MHT and TR reads: "He that testifies these things saith..."
Come - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta and of the Greek NA28. In the reading of the Greek MHT and TR it also says: 'Yes, come ....!'

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When Rev 22:21 was originally written, do you think it had:
"the Lord Jesus"?
"the Lord Jesus Christ"?
"our Lord Jesus Christ"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

"Christ [is] with all"?
"Christ be with you all. Amen"?
"Christ be with all the saints. Amen"?
"Messiah be with all of his saints. Amen"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

Revelation 22:21
Berean Literal Bible
The grace of the Lord Jesus be with all the saints. Amen.
King James Bible
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.
Literal Standard Version
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [is] with all [[the holy ones. Amen.]]
World English Bible
The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with all the saints. Amen.
Aramaic Bible in Plain English
The grace of our Lord Yeshua The Messiah be with all of his Holy Ones. Amen.

Rev 22:21 (based on Glaser)
His-- d'M-r-n [of our Lord/Master] Yeshua Messiah-- grace/gifts/blessing, [be] with all of them-- his holy ones, amen/truly.

Revelation 22:21 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with all his saints. Amen! The End of the New Testament. Glory to the Name of GOD our Father, our Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost.
Amen - we find this ending in the reading of the Greek MHT and TR and of the Aramaic Peshitta, but it is missing in the reading of the Greek NA28.
our Lord Jesus Christ - this is the reading of the Greek TR and of the Aramaic Peshitta. The reading of the Greek MHT is: 'the Lord Jesus Christ' and the reading of the Greek NA28 is: 'the Lord Jesus'.
with all its saints - this is the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta (literally: 'with all of them, his saints'). The reading of the Greek MHT is: 'with all the saints', the reading of the Greek TR is: 'with all of you' and the reading of the Greek NA28 is: 'with all'.
explanation - only in the reading of the Aramaic Peshitta do we read the following 2 text lines after this verse: (1) “The end of the New Testament” and (2) “Glory to the Name of God our Father, our Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit.”
Reply
#70
"The Peshitta family of manuscripts are written in Syriac, dialect of Aramaic, mostly local, & spoken in Edessa (today Southern Turkey), region originally of important Christian influence, where Christian literature was commonly written, including those of the NT, mainly duplicate copies. However, most of these are carbon dated by the IV century AD, the earliest of which could be dated by the middle, & up year 400 AD.
Now, the Crawford Codex is a very particular late manuscript of a Syrian/Aramaic copy, dated the earlier on the 1st century AD.
As far as the Khouboris code we are talking about a carbon dated 12th century manuscript."

Do you still maintain that "The 'Aramaic New Testament' texts, are maybe suppose to exist, but there is none to show"?

"Obviously, the original at least 5,856 Greek manuscripts, are all most of them dated from the 40th year up, of the first century AD.
Further, all the well known long scholarship in the NT has never doubted, the slightest, of the original nature, from the very hand of the Apostles that gave origin to the known NT manuscripts, all of them in Greek Koine."
Including scholarship by:
Azariah de' Rossi?
John Etheridge?
James Murdock?
Professor Wichelhaus?
J.H. Pettingell?
William Norton?
C.F. Burney?
James A. Montgomery?
R.H. Charles?
Robert B.Y. Scott?
H.C. Hoskier?
Charles Cutler Torrey?
Matthew Black?
Raymond A. Martin?
Steven Thompson?
Christopher Lancaster?

"Certainly, at least by the 300 BC year on, in Palestine, Greek was the prevalent language in that region, commonly spoken in all, & any, region of the Levant."
Do you think Jesus' words in the Gospels were originally:
spoken in Greek?
written down in Greek?

"No doubt that the 2nd Temple Judaism, was indeed a Hellenic Judaism."
Even in Palestine?

"And, the very existence of the OT Greek translated in Alexandria, was a work of long data, ordered by the Jerusalem Sanhedrin. That is, the Septuagint, that was very well known in all Judea, at least 300 years before Christ was born. And, not by chance 300 out of the 350 citations of the OT come directly from the Septuagint, & not any other manuscripts."
What are 2 of those 300 citations?

"It is further important to emphasize that, what we now know as the Jewish Tanak, is but the work of the post Christian Era Masoretic Judaism, written most of the time outside from Palestine."
Do you consider to be "the work of the post Christian Era Masoretic Judaism":
Dead Sea Scroll Tanakh material?
the Samaritan Pentateuch?
the Aramaic Targums?
the Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh?

"Finally, a couple of data concerning language use in Jesus' time, is important to point out.
First, Greek was the prevalent language in Palestine' Jesus time, more in Galilee than in Jerusalem. Aramaic was a family language, less used in Galilee than in Jerusalem. Hebrew itself was a nearly dead language, ceremonially spoken primarily in the Jerusalem Temple.
This is directly reflected in the bible manuscripts, used by the century prior to Jesus' time."

Including the Aramaic Targums?
Do you consider Acts 1:19's "Akel-Dama" to be: Greek? Hebrew? Aramaic?
"Hence, the Greek Septuagint, & after Jesus' times, the obviously Greek NT was born."
What do you make of the evidence of Aramaic influence on some of the renderings present in the LXX?
Reply
#71
Adjective Placement

When Rev 2:1, 8, 12, 18; Rev 3:1, 7, 14 were originally written, do you think they had:
"city church" e.g. 'Philadelphian church'?
"church of city" e.g. 'church of Philadelphia'?
a mixed bag?

The Crawford ms. uniformly contains "church of city," e.g. "assembly of Apsus.... assembly of Pergama/Pergameans."
The Coptic version of the NT uniformly mimics the Aramaic Crawford in those 7 locations.
See
volume 7 of _The Coptic version of the New Testament in the Southern dialect : otherwise called Sahidic and Thebaic ; with critical apparatus, literal English translation, register of fragments and estimate of the versions_ by George William Horner (1924).

A 1975 Zondervan interlinear of the Greek uniformly contains "city church" e.g. "in Ephesus church.... in Smyrna church."

Jay Green's 1979 pocket interlinear of the Greek that underlies the KJV II has "city church," with two exceptions that follow the Aramaic order:
"church of Smyrna.... church in Laodicia."

A 1920 copy of the Latin has "city church," with one exception that follows the Aramaic order:
"ecclesiae Sardis."

================================================.
When Rev 6:3, 5, 7, 9, 12 and Rev 8:1 were originally written, do you think they had:
"adjective seal" e.g. 'third seal'?
"seal adjective" e.g. 'seal fifth'?
a mixed bag for the adjective location?

The Crawford ms. uniformly contains "seal adjective," e.g. "seal of two.... seal of seven."

The Greek and Latin is a mixed bag.

3 instances of following the Aramaic order appear in Jay Green's 1979 pocket interlinear of the KJV II Greek:
2nd seal
3rd seal
seal 4th
5th seal
seal 6th
seal 7th

5 instances of following the Aramaic order appear in a 1975 Zondervan interlinear of the Greek:
seal the 2nd
seal the 3rd
seal the 4th
the 5th seal
seal the 6th
seal the 7th

5 instances of following the Aramaic order appear in a 1920 copy of the Latin:
seal 2nd [google translate to the individual words in "sigillum secundum" from 'Clementine Vulgate' via the Peshitta tool at dukhrana.com]
seal 3rd
seal 4th
5th seal
seal 6th
seal 7th
Reply
#72
In the Greek Revelation, in the vast majority of instances (specifically, at-least 71/80), the adjective 'megas'/ great/ loud appears _after_ the noun it describes.

Of the 9 times that it doesn't, 5 of those times it's speaking of socioeconomic levels:
11:18 to the small and the great and to destroy
13:16 the small and the great and the
19:5 the small and the great
19:18 freemen both and slaves, even of [the] small and great
20:12 the dead, the great and the small

The remaining 4 times are:
13:5 a mouth speaking great things and blasphemy
15:3 Lamb saying, Great and wonderful [are]
16:1 (in some Greek mss.)
16:21 the plague of the hail for great is the plague of it exceeding

(In addition, the KJV Rev 19:17 erroneously has "the supper of the great God," while the original Aramaic and certain Greek mss. have "the supper great of God.")

Here are those passages from the original Aramaic, based on Glaser:
13.5 And was given to her/it a mouth of speaking r-u-r-b-th-a [great things] and blasphemy,
and was given to her/it authority to be working months forty and two.
15.3 And they were glorifying the dwelling of Moses, His work of God [i.e., of God His work],
and the praise song of the Lamb and were saying, Great and amazing your works MrYa [Master YHWH],
God holding all, upright and truths your works, King/Ruler of this world/age.
16.1 And I heard a voice/sound great from the temple/holy-place that said to the seven messengers,
Go and pour down seven bowls/vessels of His anger/passion/burning of God upon/over/against the earth.
16.21 And hail great like talent(s) descended from heaven/sky upon the sons of men and they-- the sons of men-- blaspheme God over/regarding the plague/injury of hail, because that great is its plague/injury much/very.

When Rev 16:1 was originally written, do you think it literally read:
"great voice"?
"voice great"? (the Crawford ms. contains that)

https://biblehub.com/text/revelation/16-1.htm
3173 μεγάλης/ megalēs/ loud
5456 φωνῆς/ phōnēs/ voice

Revelation 16:1
https://biblehub.com/texts/revelation/16-1.htm
Nestle Greek New Testament 1904
.... μεγάλης φωνῆς ....
Westcott and Hort 1881
.... μεγάλης φωνῆς ....

RP Byzantine Majority Text 2005
.... φωνῆς μεγάλης ....
Scrivener's Textus Receptus 1894
.... φωνῆς μεγάλης ....
Stephanus Textus Receptus 1550
.... φωνῆς μεγάλης ....
Beza Greek New Testament 1598
.... φωνῆς μεγάλης

3173. μέγας (megas); almost all brackets are mine from looking at an interlinear
https://biblehub.com/greek/strongs_3173.htm
Revelation 1:10 Adj-AFS
GRK: μου φωνὴν μεγάλην ὡς σάλπιγγος
INT: me a voice loud as of a trumpet

Revelation 2:22 Adj-AFS
GRK: εἰς θλίψιν μεγάλην ἐὰν μὴ
INT: into tribulation great if not

Revelation 5:2 Adj-DFS
INT: in a voice loud Who is worthy

Revelation 5:12 Adj-DFS
INT: saying with a voice loud Worthy is

Revelation 6:4 Adj-NFS
INT: to him a sword great

Revelation 6:10 Adj-DFS
INT: they were crying with a voice loud saying Until

Revelation 6:12 Adj-NMS
INT: and an earthquake great there was and

Revelation 6:13 Adj-GMS
INT: by a wind great being shaken

Revelation 6:17 Adj-NFS
INT: day great of the wrath

Revelation 7:2 Adj-DFS
INT: he cried with a voice loud to the four

Revelation 7:10 Adj-DFS
INT: crying with a voice loud saying

Revelation 7:14 Adj-GFS
INT: tribulation great and they washed

Revelation 8:8 Adj-NNS
INT: as a mountain great with fire burning

Revelation 8:10 Adj-NMS
INT: heaven a star great burning as

Revelation 8:13 Adj-DFS
INT: saying with a voice loud Woe woe

Revelation 9:2 Adj-GFS
INT: [the] smoke of a furnace great and was darkened

Revelation 9:14 Adj-DMS
INT: river great Euphrates

Revelation 10:3 Adj-DFS
INT: cried with a voice loud as a lion

Revelation 11:8 Adj-GFS
INT: city great which is called

Revelation 11:11 Adj-NMS
INT: and fear great fell upon

Revelation 11:12 Adj-GFS
INT: they heard a voice great out of

Revelation 11:13 Adj-NMS
INT: there was an earthquake great and a

Revelation 11:15 Adj-NFP
INT: were voices great in

Revelation 11:17 Adj-AFS
INT: [you took the power] of you great and reigned

Revelation 11:18 Adj-AMP
INT: [to the small] and the great and to destroy

Revelation 11:19 Adj-NFS
INT: and hail great

Revelation 12:1 Adj-NNS
INT: And a sign great was seen in

Revelation 12:3 Adj-NMS
INT: behold a dragon great red having

Revelation 12:9 Adj-NMS
INT: dragon great the serpent

Revelation 12:10 Adj-AFS
INT: I heard a voice great in

Revelation 12:12 Adj-AMS
INT: having fury great knowing that

Revelation 12:14 Adj-GMS
INT: eagle great that she might fly

Revelation 13:2 Adj-AFS
INT: and authority great

Revelation 13:5 Adj-ANP
INT: a mouth speaking great things and blasphemy

Revelation 13:13 Adj-ANP
INT: it works signs great that even

Revelation 13:16 Adj-AMP
INT: [the small] and the great and the

Revelation 14:2 Adj-GFS
INT: a voice of thunder great and the

Revelation 14:7 Adj-DFS
INT: with a voice loud Fear

Revelation 14:8 Adj-NFS
INT: Babylon the great she who of

Revelation 14:9 Adj-DFS
INT: with a voice loud If anyone

Revelation 14:15 Adj-DFS
INT: with a voice loud to him sitting

Revelation 14:18 Adj-DFS
INT: he called with a cry loud to him having

Revelation 14:19 Adj-AMS
INT: of God the great

Revelation 15:1 Adj-ANS
INT: [and I saw another sign in] heaven great and wonderful

Revelation 15:3 Adj-NNP
INT: Lamb saying Great and wonderful [are]

Revelation 16:1 Adj-GFS
INT: And I heard [a] loud voice out of

Revelation 16:9 Adj-ANS
INT: men with heat great and they blasphemed

Revelation 16:12 Adj-AMS
INT: river great the Euphrates

Revelation 16:14 Adj-GFS
INT: day great of God

Revelation 16:17 Adj-NFS
INT: came out a voice loud from the

Revelation 16:18 Adj-NMS
INT: earthquake there was a great such as not

Revelation 16:18 Adj-NMS
INT: an earthquake so great

Revelation 16:19 Adj-NFS
INT: city great into three

Revelation 16:19 Adj-NFS
INT: Babylon the great was remembered before

Revelation 16:21 Adj-NFS
INT: and a hail great about a talent weight

Revelation 16:21 Adj-NFS
INT: [the plague of the] hail for great is the [plague of it exceeding]

Revelation 17:1 Adj-GFS
INT: prostitute great who sits

Revelation 17:5 Adj-NFS
INT: Babylon the Great the mother

Revelation 17:6 Adj-ANS
INT: her with wonder great

Revelation 17:18 Adj-NFS
INT: city great which has

Revelation 18:1 Adj-AFS
INT: having authority great and the

Revelation 18:2 Adj-NFS
INT: Babylon the great and is become

Revelation 18:10 Adj-NFS
INT: city great Babylon the

Revelation 18:16 Adj-NFS
INT: city great which [was] clothed with

Revelation 18:18 Adj-DFS
INT: city great

Revelation 18:19 Adj-NFS
INT: city great in which

Revelation 18:21 Adj-AMS
INT: as a millstone great and cast [it]

Revelation 18:21 Adj-NFS
INT: Babylon the great city and

Revelation 19:1 Adj-AFS
INT: like a voice loud of a multitude great

Revelation 19:2 Adj-AFS
INT: prostitute great who corrupted

Revelation 19:5 Adj-NMP
INT: [the small] and the great

Revelation 19:17 Adj-DFS
INT: with a voice loud saying to all

Revelation 19:17 Adj-ANS
INT: supper great of God

Revelation 19:18 Adj-GMP
INT: [freemen both and slaves, even of [the]] small and great

Revelation 20:1 Adj-AFS
INT: and a chain great in the

Revelation 20:11 Adj-AMS
INT: I saw a throne great white and

Revelation 20:12 Adj-AMP
INT: [the] dead [the] great and [the small]

Revelation 21:3 Adj-GFS
INT: I heard a voice great out of

Revelation 21:10 Adj-ANS
INT: to a mountain great and high

Revelation 21:12 Adj-ANS
INT: It had a wall great and high
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