Beth Sapra
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Copyright & License:

© 2005 John Marucci,
all rights reserved.

Unless specifically stated otherwise, all material on this website, including but not limited to text, graphics, and programing code, is the proprietary intellectual property of the author.

In general, you may download this material to a single personal computer for private individual use only. You may not sell, transfer, exhibit, extract, modify, or reverse engineer any part of this intellectual property without the prior written consent of the author.

I wish to thank Paul Younan, the generous sponsor of, for making this website possible.
I also wish to thank my wife, Laurie, for her years of unfailing support, and artistic contributions.

On this page you will find various articles, essays, and some scans of old books which have passed into the public domain. To view many of the selections on this page, you will need Adobe's Acrobat Reader™ version 5.x or later which you may download for free from:
The Current version.
Older Versions.

•  Articles • Books •

Articles, Essays, and Various Works

This section contains various articles, essays, and other compositions of interest to the Aramaic enthusiast. Unless stated otherwise, all of these works are copywrited materials.

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Books in the Public Domain

In this section, as time and availability permit, I will be placing scans of books whose copyright has expired. In the United States this generally means books published 75 years or more before the present date. In the European Union, this means books whose author has been dead 70 years or more before the present date. Luckily for Aramaic enthusiasts, quite a few titles of interest meet these requirements, including Peshittä editions, grammars, and dictionaries.

(Due to the large size of these files and slow server issues, you may get better results by downloading the files first, and then viewing them off-line.)


Please note that, while these grammars contain a great deal of useful information, they also contain some 19th century errors and misconceptions. They are best used in conjunction with a modern introductory grammar, such as Thackston's Introduction to Syriac.

The Elements of Syriac, 1906.

This is an elementary grammar that features an extensive section of reading lessons with commentary.

Syriac Grammar, Eberhard Nestle, 1900.

This is the 1900 English translation of the German scholar's 1881 Latin Syriac Porta. It features a grammar section, an extensive bibliography, a chrestomathy of Syriac texts, and a lexicon.

*The expansion of the bibliography in the 1900 edition put the pages out of order.

Syriac Texts

Tetraeuangelium Sanctum (The Four Holy Gospels), Philip Edward Pusey and George Henry Gwilliam, 1901.

This is a critical edition of the four Gospels of the Peshitta New Testament based on the readings of forty one manuscripts from the fifth century onwards, both "Nestorian" and "Jacobite." It also includes the Eusebian canon tables, notes from the Qarkafta (the Syriac equivalent of the Hebrew Massora), and a translation of the Gospels into Latin which I have not reproduced here.

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