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Does anyone know what Old Testament did Apostles use?
#1
Hello Everyone,
Below information was pointed out to me by IPostapyuk and I also received from this website -(<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="http://theorthodoxlife.wordpress.com/2012/03/12/masoretic-text-vs-original-hebrew/">http://theorthodoxlife.wordpress.com/20 ... al-hebrew/</a><!-- m -->).

Septuagint agrees with the verses in the Peshitta New Testament while Peshitta Tanakh and Hebrew Masoretic Text disagree with it.

1) Acts 7:14 (Murdock Translation) - And Joseph sent and brought is father Jacob, and all his family; and they were in number seventy and five souls.

Septuagint has 75 while both Hebrew Masoretic Text and Peshitta Tanakh has 70 (in Genesis 46:26-27, Exodus 1:5. But Deuteronomy 10:22 of Septuagint agrees with Masoretic and Peshitta Tanakh).

2) Dr. John W. Etheridge's English Peshitta translation:
Matthew 15:8 - This people with the lips honour me, but their heart (is) very far from me.
Matthew 15:9 - But in vain they reverence me, while they teach the doctrines of the commandments of men.

Masoretic:
Isaiah 29:13, "Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men:

Isaiah 29:13 (my attempt on translation of Peshitta Tanakh in Ceriani Veteris Testamentum) - "MarYA has said, the people have approached on with their mouth and with their lips, they have honored me. And their heart far from me and [so] was their reverence from me through the commandments and the doctrines of men."

Septuagint:
Isaiah 29:13, "And the Lord has said, This people draw nigh to me with their mouth, and they honour me with their lips; but their heart is far from me: but in vain do they worship me, teaching the commandments and doctrines of men."

3) Dr. John W. Etheridge's English Peshitta translation:
Luke 4:18 - The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, Because he hath anointed me to evangelize to the poor, And hath sent me to heal the contrite in heart, To proclaim to the captives release, And to the blind, vision, And to assure the contrite by remission,

Isaiah 61:1 (Complete Jewish Bible): "The Spirit of Adonai ELOHIM is upon me, because ADONAI has anointed me to announce good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted; to proclaim freedom to the captives, to let out into light those bound in the dark;"

Isaiah 61:1 (LXX) - The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me; he has sent me to preach glad tidings to the poor, to heal the broken in heart, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind;

4) Matthew 12:21 (Paul Younan's Interlinear Translation) - "And in his name shall the gentiles hope."

Septuagint: He will shine forth and not be broken until he has set judgment upon the earth, and upon his name nations will hope.

Isaiah 42:4 (Masoretic Text): He will not grow faint and not be crushed until he has set judgment in the earth, and for his law the islands shall wait.

Peshitta Tanakh has islands instead of "Amme" which can mean "Gentiles or Nations."

5) Hebrews 1:6 (Murdock Translation) - "And again, when bringing the first begotten into the world, he said: Let all the angels of God worship him."

Deuteronomy 32:43 (Septuagint) - Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels of God worship him; rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him;

6) Hebrews 10:5 (Murdock) - "Therefore, when entering the world, he said: In sacrifices and oblations, thou hast not had pleasure; but thou hast clothed me with a body."

Psalms 40:6 (Septuagint ) - "Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not; but a body hast thou prepared me: whole-burnt-offering and sacrifice for sin thou didst not require."

In Hebrew Masoretic Text, it is Psalms 40:7 (instead of Psalms 40:6) - Sacrifice and meal-offering Thou hast no delight in; Mine ears hast Thou opened;

Peshitta Tanakh also agrees with Hebrew Masoretic Text

7) 2 Kings 5:1 of Septuagint and Masoretic text, it says Naaman was general of the army of the king of Aram while Peshitta Tanakh says "Edom" instead of "Aram."

In Luke 4:27 (of Peshitta), Luke says that Naaman was Aramean (translated as Syrian by Murdock).

So I was wondering, what Old Testament did Apostles actually use? It looks like some of the verses might have changed. Was there another Aramaic Old Testament?
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#2
I have the same question, but have not yet done the work to find a clear answer. What you can do, is find all the clear NT quotations as found in the Peshitta text and compare them all with what is found in the Hebrew, Samaritan, Greek, and Aramaic versions...and see which ones they line up with the most... then check the Aramaic Targums out.
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#3
The Apostles that could read and speak Hebrew most likely would have used the Hebrew Tanakh (like Paul for example). The ones who didn't speak Hebrew or read it could have easily made use of the Targums (from memory only, as they weren't written down during the Apostolic period) or the Peshitta Tanakh (if Luke was Assyrian, then it is certain that he was acquainted with this version). Greek-speaking Christians obviously would have used the Septuagint.
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#4
Aaron S has created an excel sheet, in which he compares the quotes. Unfortunately, we seem to have forgotten his work. It would be better to use and improve (if any) his work.
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